15 april 2012: ik heb in onderstaand artikel enkele veranderingen aangebracht omdat de verwijzingen naar adressen niet meer klopte. Onderaan referentielijst zoals die op Wikipedia wordt gepubliceerd.

Woord vooraf: In The health benefits of medicinal mushrooms from Mark Stengler een Engelstalig boek over medicinale paddestoelen wordt beschreven hoe de paddestoelen moeten worden klaargemaakt en gegeten. Raadpleeg wel altijd een deskundig arts hiervoor

Op Wikipedia kunt u veel over de Maitake champignon lezen zoals onderstaand artikel. Het lijkt erop dat juist de stofjes beta-glucan 1.3 en 1.6 , onderdeel van de Maitake verantwoordelijk zijn voor de immuunstimulerende functie van deze medicinale champignon.  Hier een engelstalige beschrijving van wat Maitake precies is en hoe het werkt.

Bron:

Maitake (Grifola frondosa) is the Japanese name for an edible fungi with a large fruiting body characterized by overlapping waves. Maitake is derived from the Japanese, "mai" meaning dance and "take" meaning mushroom, thus many refer to Maitake as the "dancing mushroom". It is a premier culinary mushroom as well as a medicinal mushroom. Though mushrooms in general are not particularly known for being nutrient-dense, medicinal mushrooms such as maitake are increasingly being recognized as a potent source of various compounds with diverse biological and therapeutic effects with dramatic health-promoting properties. 
Within the past two decades, maitake has begun to be cultivated not just as a food but also as a dietary supplement that may significantly benefit overall health. It very well may be the most versatile and promising medicinal mushroom supplement, though currently less well-known than shiitake and reishi. Andrew Weil has said that maitake appears to be the most effective immune-boosting mushroom of all, noting that it belongs to the polypore family of medicinal mushrooms that, in the Far East, includes many mushrooms that "are highly esteemed as medicinal herbs, especially the class of superior drugs, the tonics and panaceas that increase resistance and promote longevity." Such adaptogens are often taken on a daily basis to help balance bodily functions and prevent disease. 

To an extent, the content and bioactivity of these compounds depend on how the mushroom is prepared and consumed. Among the most important constituents, however, are certain polysaccharides known as the beta-glucans. Maitake's prominent immune-boosting effects are thought to be due predominantly to these polysaccharides. 

Polysaccharides such as the beta glucans found in a number of medicinal mushrooms (as well as other polysaccharides found in medicinal herbs) are increasingly being recognized for their ability to have a non-specific immune-modulation effect. These so-called biological response modifiers can be potent anti-viral and anti-tumor agents, not by killing viruses or cancer cells directly but by stimulating the body's innate ability to marshal cellular defenses. The maitake mushroom contains a high percentage of beta glucan. While other medicinal mushrooms have also been shown to possess bioactive beta-glucan constituents, researchers have noted that their various beta glucan characteristics differ. Maitake's beta 1/6, 1/3 glucan has superior immune activity compared to other medicinal mushrooms previously studied. Other medicinal mushrooms contain a 1/3, 1/6 glucan. According to researchers, "despite the structural and functional similarities of these glucans, they differ in their effectiveness against specific tumors and in their ability to elicit various cellular responses, particularly cytokine expression and production". One theory is that the greater the degree of branching the higher the likelihood that the fraction will reach and activate many more immune cells. One top microbiologist has been quoted as saying, "most of the mushrooms contain similar polysaccharides but I believe that Maitake is the most potent". While the role of medicinal mushrooms in cellular and immune health is strong, one of the challenges with medicinal mushrooms is that many of them lose much of their effectiveness when taken orally. A number of studies have shown that Maitake is the most effective of the medicinal mushrooms when taken orally. 

In the late 1980's certain researchers in Japan began to develop reliable and consistent methods for extracting certain portions of the maitake mushroom which is responsible for the immune stimulation activity. The prime researcher in this area was Dr. Hiroaki Nanba of Kobe Pharmaceutical University. Dr. Nanba obtained various extracts from the maitake by continuously refining down the elements in the fruit body of Maitake which led to his creation of an extract called D Fraction. Dr. Nanba published the results of his D fraction research in 1988. Throughout the 1990's Dr. Nanba endeavored to improve upon the immuno-potentiating activity of the D fraction extract in order to provide greater concentration of the key beneficial compounds for efficient use in dietary supplements. As Dr. Nanba researched the D Fraction extract further he discovered an adhering substance or "float" that actually inhibited the immuno potentiating activity of the extract. Dr. Nanba was able to remove the float which led to a more powerful and more pure maitake extract than the D fraction. This advanced extract is called MD Fraction. This MD Fraction extract is the maitake extract that consumers should search for, since other look-alikes are simply less potent, first generation fractions, developed more than a decade ago.

It is important to note that any research references to the D fraction also apply to the more advanced MD Fraction, as they are the same beta 1/6, 1/3 glucan derived from Grifola frondosa. MD Fraction is a next generation maitake extract from the D fraction and is more potent than the old D fraction extract. 

 

References

  1. ^ Deng G, Lin H, Seidman A, et al. (September 2009). "A phase I/II trial of a polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in breast cancer patients: immunological effects". Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 135 (9): 1215–21. doi:10.1007/s00432-009-0562-z. PMID 19253021. 
  2. ^ Kodama N, Komuta K, Nanba H (2003). "Effect of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-Fraction on the activation of NK cells in cancer patients". Journal of Medicinal Food 6 (4): 371–7. doi:10.1089/109662003772519949. PMID 14977447. 
  3. ^ Kodama N, Komuta K, Sakai N, Nanba H (December 2002). "Effects of D-Fraction, a polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa on tumor growth involve activation of NK cells". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 25 (12): 1647–50. doi:10.1248/bpb.25.1647. PMID 12499658. 
  4. ^ Kodama N, Asakawa A, Inui A, Masuda Y, Nanba H (March 2005). "Enhancement of cytotoxicity of NK cells by D-Fraction, a polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa". Oncology Reports 13 (3): 497–502. PMID 15706424. 
  5. ^ Kodama N, Murata Y, Nanba H (2004). "Administration of a polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa stimulates immune function of normal mice". Journal of Medicinal Food 7 (2): 141–5. doi:10.1089/1096620041224012. PMID 15298759. 
  6. ^ Fullerton SA, Samadi AA, Tortorelis DG, et al. (2000). "Induction of apoptosis in human prostatic cancer cells with beta-glucan (Maitake mushroom polysaccharide)". Molecular Urology 4 (1): 7–13. PMID 10851301. 
  7. ^ Lin JT, Liu WH (October 2006). "o-Orsellinaldehyde from the submerged culture of the edible mushroom Grifola frondosa exhibits selective cytotoxic effect against Hep 3B cells through apoptosis". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (20): 7564–9. doi:10.1021/jf0616762. PMID 17002422. 
  8. ^ Cui FJ, Li Y, Xu YY, et al. (April 2007). "Induction of apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells by polysaccharide-peptide GFPS1b from the cultured mycelia of Grifola frondosa GF9801". Toxicology in Vitro 21 (3): 417–27. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2006.10.004. PMID 17150327. 
  9. ^ Gu YH, Belury MA (March 2005). "Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes". Cancer Letters 220 (1): 21–8. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2004.06.037. PMID 15737684. 
  10. ^ Konno S (2004). "Potential growth inhibitory effect of maitake D-fraction on canine cancer cells". Veterinary Therapeutics 5 (4): 263–71. PMID 15719326. 
  11. ^ Konno S (March 2007). "Effect of various natural products on growth of bladder cancer cells: two promising mushroom extracts". Alternative Medicine Review 12 (1): 63–8. PMID 17397268. http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/12/1/63.pdf. 
  12. ^ Nanba H (September 1995). "Activity of maitake D-fraction to inhibit carcinogenesis and metastasis". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 768 (1): 243–5. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1995.tb12130.x. PMID 8526356. 
  13. ^ Kodama N, Komuta K, Nanba H (June 2002). "Can maitake MD-fraction aid cancer patients?". Alternative Medicine Review 7 (3): 236–9. PMID 12126464. http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/7/3/236.pdf. 
  14. ^ Nanba H, Kubo K (December 1997). "Effect of Maitake D-fraction on cancer prevention". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 833 (1 Cancer): 204–7. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1997.tb48611.x. PMID 9616756. 
  15. ^ Masuda Y, Murata Y, Hayashi M, Nanba H (June 2008). "Inhibitory effect of MD-Fraction on tumor metastasis: involvement of NK cell activation and suppression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression in lung vascular endothelial cells". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31 (6): 1104–8. doi:10.1248/bpb.31.1104. PMID 18520039. 
  16. ^ http://sci.cancerresearchuk.org/labs/med_mush/final_pdfs/chapt7.pdf[dead link]
  17. ^ Konno S, Tortorelis DG, Fullerton SA, Samadi AA, Hettiarachchi J, Tazaki H (December 2001). "A possible hypoglycaemic effect of maitake mushroom on Type 2 diabetic patients". Diabetic Medicine 18 (12): 1010. doi:10.1046/j.1464-5491.2001.00532-5.x. PMID 11903406. 
  18. ^ Hong L, Xun M, Wutong W (April 2007). "Anti-diabetic effect of an alpha-glucan from fruit body of maitake (Grifola frondosa) on KK-Ay mice". The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 59 (4): 575–82. doi:10.1211/jpp.59.4.0013. PMID 17430642. 
  19. ^ Kubo K, Aoki H, Nanba H (August 1994). "Anti-diabetic activity present in the fruit body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). I". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 17 (8): 1106–10. doi:10.1248/bpb.17.1106. PMID 7820117. 
  20. ^ Lo HC, Hsu TH, Chen CY (2008). "Submerged culture mycelium and broth of Grifola frondosa improve glycemic responses in diabetic rats". The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 36 (2): 265–85. doi:10.1142/S0192415X0800576X. PMID 18457360. 
  21. ^ Manohar V, Talpur NA, Echard BW, Lieberman S, Preuss HG (January 2002). "Effects of a water-soluble extract of maitake mushroom on circulating glucose/insulin concentrations in KK mice". Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism 4 (1): 43–8. doi:10.1046/j.1463-1326.2002.00180.x. PMID 11874441. 
  22. ^ Horio H, Ohtsuru M (February 2001). "Maitake (Grifola frondosa) improve glucose tolerance of experimental diabetic rats". Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 47 (1): 57–63. doi:10.3177/jnsv.47.57. PMID 11349892. 
  23. ^ Matsuur H, Asakawa C, Kurimoto M, Mizutani J (July 2002). "Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from the seeds of balsam pear (Momordica charantia) and the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 66 (7): 1576–8. doi:10.1271/bbb.66.1576. PMID 12224646. 
  24. ^ Zhang Y, Mills GL, Nair MG (December 2002). "Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant compounds from the mycelia of the edible mushroom Grifola frondosa". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (26): 7581–5. doi:10.1021/jf0257648. PMID 12475274. 
  25. ^ Lee JS, Park BC, Ko YJ, et al. (December 2008). "Grifola frondosa (maitake mushroom) water extract inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis through inhibition of reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation". Journal of Medicinal Food 11 (4): 643–51. doi:10.1089/jmf.2007.0629. PMID 19053855. 
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Plaats een reactie ...

3 Reacties op "De medicinale paddestoel Maitake MD-fraction , waarom dit natuurlijke middel zo bijzonder is in een behandeling van kanker"

  • Hans :
    Ik kwam onderstaande tekst tegen bij het zoeken naar achtergrondinformatie, dit lijkt me goed om te weten voor iedereen die het in deze hoek zoekt.
    Laat u geen knollen voor citroenen verkopen !!

    Alle informatie is juist en kan eenvoudig via Google worden geverifieerd (ik heb dat gedaan!)
    ----------------------
    Let’s list the facts:

    – In 1984 Prof. Nanba patented the production process of what later became known as the D-fraction. The actual term ‘D-fraction’ was introduced by Prof. Nanba in the 1980s in his research papers.

    – In 1991 two Wall-Street businessmen started Maitake Products, Inc. (MPI)

    – In 1995 they trademarked the phrase ‘D-fraction’ and introduced Grifron-Pro Maitake D-Fraction®, a liquid product consisting of “900mg pure Maitake D-fraction extract in a 1 fluid oz. bottle (sic)”

    – In 1997 Professor Nanba optimized the fractionation process of the D-fraction; the result was patented and became known as the MD-fraction.

    – In 1998 MPI ’s flagship product, Grifron-Pro Maitake D-Fraction® was given an Investigational New Drug (IND) status by the U.S. FDA in order to conduct a Phase II pilot study on the treatment of advanced breast and prostate cancer. Oddly enough, there is no information available at all about the outcome of this pilot study, and the product in question has been renamed a few years later. When asked about the trial’s outcome, the company said this was ‘proprietary information’ only available to ‘qualified persons’.

    – In 2002 the Tradeworks Group, acting as a representative of Yukiguni, the worlds biggest producer of Maitake at the time (and funding Prof. Nanba ’s research) lauched their MaitakeGold404® product, using science-based marketing similar to MPI’s approach.

    – Late 2002 MPI sued the Tradeworks Group stating “Tradeworks […] advertised their products as the extract used in clinical studies on D-fraction (a beta glucan). “Our D-Fraction has been the base for almost all science of maitake mushroom for the last 12 to 15 years” (Mike Shirota, CEO of MPI)

    – Early 2003 the Tradeworks Group countersued MPI stating “MPI represented that it ‘coined the term D-fraction,’ despite knowing and indeed acknowledging in the complaint that Dr. Hiroaki Nanba defined the D-fraction maitake extract, in published scientific articles, before MPI even existed”, adding that “MPI […] altered [research] articles to support its claims for their Maitake D-Fraction product”

    – It is indeed unclear, not to say ‘questionable’ whether the product(s) MPI sell actually contain purified ‘D-fraction’ as described in Nanba’s publications.The specifications of their alleged D-Fraction-containing supplementsall state ‘Maitake PD-Fraction® Standardized to contain 30% proteoglucan;’, where ‘PD-Fraction’ stands for ‘Pre-D-fraction’. What ‘Pre-D’ actually is, is not further explained: is it A-, B- or C-fraction ? Or something else? Based on their own description, it is not pure D-fraction.

    When asked for a Certificate of Analysis the company states this is ‘proprietary information’. A direct question: “Is your D-fraction identical to prof. Hiroaki Nanba’s D-fraction as described in [….]” remains unanswered, even after repeated attempts.
  • Vernon :
    Beste Vernon,
    Ik heb uw reactie weggehaald omdat u zonder enig bewijs zware beschuldigingen doet aan iedereen die Maitake D-fraction verkoopt. U zult met meer en echte bewijzen moeten komen om uw stelling hard te maken.
    Kees Braam
  • Lesley Alberts :
    Reactie weggehaald wegens sluikreclame. bij herhaling wordt u geblokkeerd.

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