23 april 2011: bron Medscape

Frequent gebruik van alcohol is vaak de oorzaak van problemen met de lever tot aan primaire leverkanker  aan toe. Op Medscape is een 14 pagina's groot studieverslag geplaatst over hoe op dit moment leverproblemen worden behandeld. Waarbij een grote nadruk ligt op leefstijl, proberen af te komen van alcohol gebruik, en gezonde voeding en voedingsmiddelen als behandelingsvorm. Maar ook is er aandacht voor agressievere manieren om een zieke lever te behandelen. Hier een inleiding tot het artikel met een deeplink naar het totale artikel en onderaan de referentielijst die gebruikt is voor het artikel.

Hoe behandel je een zieke lever veroorzaakt door alcohol?

Bron: Medscape

Treatment of Alcoholic Liver Disease

Thomas H. Frazier, MD; Abigail M. Stocker, MD; Nicole A. Kershner, MD; Luis S. Marsano, MD; Craig J. McClain, MD

Posted: 03/31/2011; Ther Adv Gastroenterol. 2011;4(1):63-81. © 2011 Sage Publications, Inc.

Abstract and Introduction


Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains a major cause of liver-related mortality in the US and worldwide. The correct diagnosis of ALD can usually be made on a clinical basis in conjunction with blood tests, and a liver biopsy is not usually required. Abstinence is the hallmark of therapy for ALD, and nutritional therapy is the first line of therapeutic intervention. The role of steroids in patients with moderate to severe alcoholic hepatitis is gaining increasing acceptance, with the caveat that patients be evaluated for the effectiveness of therapy at 1 week. Pentoxifylline appears to be especially effective in ALD patients with renal dysfunction/hepatorenal syndrome. Biologics such as specific anti-TNFs have been disappointing and should probably not be used outside of the clinical trial setting. Transplantation is effective in patients with end-stage ALD who have stopped drinking (usually for ≥6 months), and both long-term graft and patient survival are excellent.


Alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which ranges from simple steatosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), continues to represent a major health issue in the United States and abroad. Despite significant advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of alcohol-related liver injury, there are no FDA-approved treatments for ALD. The purpose of this review is to examine the diagnosis and current modalities of treatment for ALD. At present, abstinence remains the cornerstone for successful treatment of ALD. Aside from treatment of the underlying addiction, aggressive nutritional intervention and 'off-label' use of various pharmacotherapies aimed at the underlying mechanisms of injury (e.g., cytokine dysregulation, endotoxin translocation and oxidative stress) represent our approach to treating ALD. Read more>>>>>>>>>>

Referentielijst gebruikt bij het artikel over hoe behandel je een zieke lever veroorzaakt door alcohol


  • Addolorato, G., Leggio, L., Ferrulli, A., Cardone, S., Vonghia, L., Mirijello, A. et al. (2007) Effectiveness and safety of baclofen for maintenance of alcohol abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis: randomised, double-blind controlled study. Lancet 370: 1915–1922.
  • Addolorato, G., Russell, M., Albano, E., Haber, P.S., Wands, J.R. and Leggio, L. (2009) Understanding and treating patients with alcoholic cirrhosis: an update. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 33: 1136–1144.
  • Akerman, P.A., Cote, P.M., Yang, S.Q., McClain, C., Nelson, S., Bagby, G. et al. (1993) Long-term ethanol consumption alters the hepatic response to the regenerative effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Hepatology 17: 1066–1073.
  • Akriviadis, E., Botla, R., Briggs, W., Han, S., Reynolds, T. and Shakil, O. (2000) Pentoxifylline improves short-term survival in severe acute alcoholic hepatitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 119: 1637–1648.
  • Alexander, J.F., Lichner, M.W. and Galambos, J.T. (1971) Natural history of alcoholic hepatitis. The longterm prognosis. Am J Gastroenterol 56: 515–525.
  • Arteel, G., Marsano, L., Mendez, C., Bentley, F. and McClain, C.J. (2003) Advances in alcoholic liver disease. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 17: 625–647.
  • Assimakopoulos, S.F., Thomopoulos, K.C. and Labropoulou-Karatza, C. (2009) Pentoxifylline: a first line treatment option for severe alcoholic hepatitis and hepatorenal syndrome? World J Gastroenterol 15: 3194–3195.
  • Baker, S.S., Baker, R.D., Liu, W., Nowak, N.J. and Zhu, L. (2010) Role of alcohol metabolism in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PLoS One 8; 5(3): e9570.
  • Becker, U., Deis, A., Sorensen, T.I., Gronbaek, M., Borch-Johnsen, K., Muller, C.F. et al. (1996) Prediction of risk of liver disease by alcohol intake, sex, and age: a prospective population study. Hepatology 23: 1025–1029.
  • Biselli, M., Gramenzi, A., Del Gaudio, M., Ravaioli, M., Vitale, G., Gitto, S. et al. (2010) Long term follow-up and outcome of liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease: a single center case-control study. J Clin Gastroenterol 44: 52–57.
  • Boetticher, N.C., Peine, C.J., Kwo, P., Abrams, G.A., Patel, T., Aqel, B. et al. (2008) A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of etanercept in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis. Gastroenterology 135: 1953–1960.
  • Bouza, C., Angeles, M., Munoz, A. and Amate, J.M. (2004) Efficacy and safety of naltrexone and acamprosate in the treatment of alcohol dependence: a systematic review. Addiction 99: 811–828.
  • Bradley, K.A., DeBenedetti, A.F., Volk, R.J., Williams, E.C., Frank, D. and Kivlahan, D.R. (2007) AUDIT-C as a brief screen for alcohol misuse in primary care. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31: 1208–1217.
  • Buchsbaum, D.G., Buchanan, R.G.,Welsh, J., Centor, R.M. and Schnoll, S.H. (1992) Screening for drinking disorders in the elderly using the CAGE questionnaire. J Am Geriatr Soc 40: 662–665.
  • Cabre, E. (2008) Nutrition in alcoholic steatohepatitis: more of the same or something new? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 11: 626–631.
  • Cabre, E., Rodriguez-Iglesias, P., Caballeria, J., Quer, J.C., Sanchez-Lombrana, J.L., Pares, A. et al. (2000) Short- and long-term outcome of severe alcohol-induced hepatitis treated with steroids or enteral nutrition: a multicenter randomized trial. Hepatology 32: 36–42.
  • Calvey, H., Davis, M. and Williams, R. (1985) Controlled trial of nutritional supplementation, with and without branched chain amino acid enrichment, in treatment of acute alcoholic hepatitis. J Hepatol 1: 141–151.
  • Cao, Q., Mak, K.M. and Lieber, C.S. (2002) Dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine prevents transforming growth factor-beta1-mediated collagen accumulation in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells. J Lab Clin Med 139: 202–210.
  • Carbonneau, M., Jensen, L.A., Bain, V.G., Kelly, K., Meeberg, G. and Tandon, P. (2010) Alcohol use while on the liver transplant waiting list: a single-center experience. Liver Transpl 16: 91–97.
  • Carithers Jr, R.L., Herlong, H.F., Diehl, A.M., Shaw, E.W., Combes, B., Fallon, H.J. et al. (1989) Methylprednisolone therapy in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. A randomized multicenter trial. Ann Intern Med 110: 685–690.
  • Castel, H., Moreno, C., Antonini, T., Duclos-Valle, J., Dumortier, J., Leroy, V. et al. (2009) Early transplantation improves survival of non-responders to steroids in severe alcoholic hepatitis: a challenge to the 6 month rule of abstinence. In Proceedings of the AASLD 2009, 1 November, Boston, MA.
  • Charlton, M. (2006) Branched-chain amino acid enriched supplements as therapy for liver disease. J Nutr 136(1 Suppl): 295S–298S.
  • Chedid, A., Mendenhall, C.L., Gartside, P., French, S.W., Chen, T. and Rabin, L. (1991) Prognostic factors in alcoholic liver disease. VA Cooperative Study Group. Am J Gastroenterol 86: 210–216.
  • Chedid, A., Mendenhall, C.L., Tosch, T., Chen, T., Rabin, L., Garcia-Pont, P. et al. (1986) Significance of megamitochondria in alcoholic liver disease. Gastroenterology 90: 1858–1864.
  • Christensen, E. (2002) Alcoholic hepatitis— glucocorticosteroids or not? J Hepatol 36: 547–548.
  • Cohen, J.A. and Kaplan, M.M. (1979) The SGOT/SGPT ratio—an indicator of alcoholic liver disease. Dig Dis Sci 24: 835–838.
  • Centers for Disease Control (2008) Health, United States, 2008, Tables 68 and 69. Hyattsville, MD: NCHS.
  • Corrao, G., Lepore, A.R., Torchio, P., Valenti, M., Galatola, G., D'Amicis, A. et al. (1994) The effect of drinking coffee and smoking cigarettes on the risk of cirrhosis associated with alcohol consumption. A case–control study. Provincial Group for the Study of Chronic Liver Disease. Eur J Epidemiol 10: 657–664.
  • Das, S.K., Dhanya, L. and Vasudevan, D.M. (2008) Biomarkers of alcoholism: an updated review. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 68: 81–92.
  • Day, C.P. (2007) Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Liver Transpl 13(11 Suppl 2): S69–S75.
  • De, B.K., Gangopadhyay, S., Dutta, D., Baksi, S.D., Pani, A. and Ghosh, P. (2009) Pentoxifylline versus prednisolone for severe alcoholic hepatitis: a randomized controlled trial. World J Gastroenterol 15: 1613–1619.
  • De Gottardi, A., Spahr, L., Gelez, P., Morard, I., Mentha, G., Guillaud, O. et al. (2007) A simple score for predicting alcohol relapse after liver transplantation: results from 387 patients over 15 years. Arch Intern Med 167: 1183–1188.
  • de la Maza, M.P., Petermann, M., Bunout, D. and Hirsch, S. (1995) Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation in alcoholic cirrhotics. J Am Coll Nutr 14: 192–196.
  • Depew, W., Boyer, T., Omata, M., Redeker, A. and Reynolds, T. (1980) Double-blind controlled trial of prednisolone therapy in patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis and spontaneous encephalopathy. Gastroenterology 78: 524–529.
  • Dey, A. and Cederbaum, A.I. (2006) Alcohol and oxidative liver injury. Hepatology 43(2 Suppl 1): S63–S74.
  • Espinoza, P., Ducot, B., Pelletier, G., Attali, P., Buffet, C., David, B. et al. (1987) Interobserver agreement in the physical diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. Dig Dis Sci 32: 244–247.
  • Evstigneeva, R.P., Volkov, I.M. and Chudinova, V.V. (1998) Vitamin E as a universal antioxidant and stabilizer of biological membranes. Membr Cell Biol 12: 151–172.
  • Felver, M.E., Mezey, E., McGuire, M., Mitchell, M.C., Herlong, H.F., Veech, G.A. et al. (1990) Plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha predicts decreased longterm survival in severe alcoholic hepatitis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 14: 255–259.
  • Ferenci, P., Dragosics, B., Dittrich, H., Frank, H., Benda, L., Lochs, H. et al. (1989) Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. J Hepatol 9: 105–113.
  • Fromenty, B., Grimbert, S., Mansouri, A., Beaugrand, M., Erlinger, S., Rotig, A. et al. (1995) Hepatic mitochondrial DNA deletion in alcoholics: association with microvesicular steatosis. Gastroenterology 108: 193–200.
  • Fuchs, C.S., Stampfer, M.J., Colditz, G.A., Giovannucci, E.L., Manson, J.E., Kawachi, I. et al. (1995) Alcohol consumption and mortality among women. N Engl J Med 332: 1245–1250.
  • Galambos, J. (1974) Alcoholic Hepatitis, Intercontinental Medical Book Co: New York.
  • Garbutt, J.C., West, S.L., Carey, T.S., Lohr, K.N. and Crews, F.T. (1999) Pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence: a review of the evidence. JAMA 281: 1318–1325.
  • Gedaly, R., McHugh, P.P., Johnston, T.D., Jeon, H., Koch, A., Clifford, T.M. et al. (2008) Predictors of relapse to alcohol and illicit drugs after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease. Transplantation 86: 1090–1095.
  • Girela, E., Villanueva, E., Hernandez-Cueto, C. and Luna, J.D. (1994) Comparison of the CAGE questionnaire versus some biochemical markers in the diagnosis of alcoholism. Alcohol Alcohol 29: 337–343.
  • Graham, A., Goss, C., Xu, S., Magid, D.J. and DiGuiseppi, C. (2007) Effect of using different modes to administer the AUDIT-C on identification of hazardous drinking and acquiescence to trial participation among injured patients. Alcohol Alcohol 42: 423–429.
  • Grant, B.F., Dufour, M.C. and Harford, T.C. (1988) Epidemiology of alcoholic liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 8: 12–25.
  • Griffith, C.M. and Schenker, S. (2006) The role of nutritional therapy in alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol Res Health 29: 296–306.
  • Halsted, C.H. (2004) Nutrition and alcoholic liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 24: 289–304.
  • Heron, M.P., Hoyert, D.L., Murphy, S.L., Xu, J.Q., Kochanek, K.D. and Tejada-Vera, B. (2009) Deaths: Final data for 2006. National Vital Statistics Reports, Hyattsville, MD 57(14): 1–136.
  • Hietala, J., Koivisto, H., Anttila, P. and Niemela, O. (2006) Comparison of the combined marker GGTCDT and the conventional laboratory markers of alcohol abuse in heavy drinkers, moderate drinkers and abstainers. Alcohol Alcohol 41: 528–533.
  • Hill, D.B., Devalaraja, R., Joshi-Barve, S., Barve, S. and McClain, C.J. (1999) Antioxidants attenuate nuclear factor-kappa B activation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in alcoholic hepatitis patient monocytes and rat Kupffer cells, in vitro. Clin Biochem 32: 563–570.
  • Hill, D.B. and McClain, C.J. (2004) Anti-TNF therapy in alcoholic hepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 99: 261–263.
  • Himmelstein, D.U., Woolhandler, S.J. and Adler, R.D. (1984) Elevated SGOT/SGPT ratio in alcoholic patients with acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Am J Gastroenterol 79: 718–720.
  • Hirsch, S., Bunout, D., de la Maza, P., Iturriaga, H., Petermann, M., Icazar, G. et al. (1993) Controlled trial on nutrition supplementation in outpatients with symptomatic alcoholic cirrhosis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 17: 119–124.
  • Hirsch, S., de la Maza, M.P., Gattas, V., Barrera, G., Petermann, M., Gotteland, M. et al. (1999) Nutritional support in alcoholic cirrhotic patients improves host defenses. J Am Coll Nutr 18: 434–441.
  • Honchel, R., Ray, M.B., Marsano, L., Cohen, D., Lee, E., Shedlofsky, S. et al. (1992) Tumor necrosis factor in alcohol enhanced endotoxin liver injury. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 16: 665–669.
  • Jauhar, S., Talwalkar, J.A., Schneekloth, T., Jowsey, S., Wiesner, R.H. and Menon, K.V. (2004) Analysis of factors that predict alcohol relapse following liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 10: 408–411.
  • John, W.J., Phillips, R., Ott, L., Adams, L.J. and McClain, C.J. (1989) Resting energy expenditure in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 13: 124–127.
  • Kaner, E.F., Dickinson, H.O., Beyer, F., Pienaar, E., Schlesinger, C., Campbell, F. et al. (2009) The effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions in primary care settings: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Rev 28: 301–323.
  • Kang, Y.J. and Zhou, Z. (2005) Zinc prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Mol Aspects Med 26: 391–404.
  • Karaa, A., Thompson, K.J., McKillop, I.H., Clemens, M.G. and Schrum, L.W. (2008) S-adenosyl-L-methionine attenuates oxidative stress and hepatic stellate cell activation in an ethanol-LPS-induced fibrotic rat model. Shock 30: 197–205.
  • Kearns, P.J., Young, H., Garcia, G., Blaschke, T., O'Hanlon, G., Rinki, M. et al. (1992) Accelerated improvement of alcoholic liver disease with enteral nutrition. Gastroenterology 102: 200–205.
  • Kelly, M., Chick, J., Gribble, R., Gleeson, M., Holton, M., Winstanley, J. et al. (2006) Predictors of relapse to harmful alcohol after orthotopic liver transplantation. Alcohol Alcohol 41: 278–283.
  • Kenna, G.A., Lomastro, T.L., Schiesl, A., Leggio, L. and Swift, R.M. (2009) Review of topiramate: an antiepileptic for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2: 135–142.
  • Kharbanda, K.K. (2009) Alcoholic liver disease and methionine metabolism. Semin Liver Dis 29: 155–165.
  • Kharbanda, K.K., Mailliard, M.E., Baldwin, C.R., Beckenhauer, H.C., Sorrell, M.F. and Tuma, D.J. (2007) Betaine attenuates alcoholic steatosis by restoring phosphatidylcholine generation via the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathway. J Hepatol 46: 314–321.
  • Kim, S.J., Jung, Y.S., Kwon do, Y. and Kim, Y.C. (2008) Alleviation of acute ethanol-induced liver injury and impaired metabolomics of S-containing substances by betaine supplementation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 368: 893–898.
  • Kim, W.R., Brown Jr, R.S., Terrault, N.A. and El-Serag, H. (2002) Burden of liver disease in the United States: summary of a workshop. Hepatology 36: 227–242.
  • Klatsky, A.L. and Armstrong, M.A. (1992) Alcohol, smoking, coffee, and cirrhosis. Am J Epidemiol 136: 1248–1257.
  • Lee, K.S., Buck, M., Houglum, K. and Chojkier, M. (1995) Activation of hepatic stellate cells by TGF alpha and collagen type I is mediated by oxidative stress through c-myb expression. J Clin Invest 96: 2461–2468.
  • Lee, T.D., Sadda, M.R., Mendler, M.H., Bottiglieri, T., Kanel, G., Mato, J.M. et al. (2004) Abnormal hepatic methionine and glutathione metabolism in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28: 173–181.
  • Leevy, C.M. (1962) Fatty liver: a study of 270 patients with biopsy proven fatty liver and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 41: 249–276.
  • Lefkowitch, J.H. (2005) Morphology of alcoholic liver disease. Clin Liver Dis 9: 37–53.
  • Levy, M.F., Jennings, L., Abouljoud, M.S., Mulligan, D.C., Goldstein, R.M., Husberg, B.S. et al. (1995) Quality of life improvements at one, two, and five years after liver transplantation. Transplantation 59: 515–518.
  • Lieber, C.S. (2002) S-Adenosyl-L-methionine and alcoholic liver disease in animal models: implications for early intervention in human beings. Alcohol 27: 173–177.
  • Lieber, C.S. (2004) CYP2E1: from ASH to NASH. Hepatol Res 28: 1–11.
  • Lieber, C.S., Leo, M.A., Cao, Q., Ren, C. and DeCarli, L.M. (2003a) Silymarin retards the progression of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis in baboons. J Clin Gastroenterol 37: 336–339.
  • Lieber, C.S., Robins, S.J., Li, J., DeCarli, L.M., Mak, K.M., Fasulo, J.M. et al. (1994) Phosphatidylcholine protects against fibrosis and cirrhosis in the baboon. Gastroenterology 106: 152–159.
  • Lieber, C.S., Weiss, D.G., Groszmann, R., Paronetto, F. and Schenker, S. (2003b) II. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study of polyenylphosphatidylcholine in alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27: 1765–1772.
  • Louvet, A., Diaz, E., Dharancy, S., Coevoet, H., Texier, F., Thevenot, T. et al. (2008) Early switch to pentoxifylline in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis is inefficient in non-responders to corticosteroids. J Hepatol 48: 465–470.
  • Louvet, A., Naveau, S., Abdelnour, M., Ramond, M.J., Diaz, E., Fartoux, L. et al. (2007) The Lille model: a new tool for therapeutic strategy in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis treated with steroids. Hepatology 45: 1348–1354.
  • Louvet, A., Wartel, F., Castel, H., Dharancy, S., Hollebecque, A., Canva-Delcambre, V. et al. (2009) Infection in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis treated with steroids: early response to therapy is the key factor. Gastroenterology 137: 541–548.
  • Lucena, M.I., Andrade, R.J., de la Cruz, J.P., Rodriguez-Mendizabal, M., Blanco, E. and Sanchez de la Cuesta, F. (2002) Effects of silymarin MZ-80 on oxidative stress in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 40: 2–8.
  • Lucey, M.R. (2002) Is liver transplantation an appropriate treatment for acute alcoholic hepatitis? J Hepatol 36: 829–831.
  • Lucey, M.R. (2009) Management of alcoholic liver disease. Clin Liver Dis 13: 267–275.
  • Lucey, M.R., Mathurin, P. and Morgan, T.R. (2009a) Alcoholic hepatitis. N Engl J Med 360: 2758–2769.
  • Lucey, M.R., Schaubel, D.E., Guidinger, M.K., Tome, S. and Merion, R.M. (2009b) Effect of alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C infection on waiting list and posttransplant mortality and transplant survival benefit. Hepatology 50: 400–406.
  • MacSween, R.N. and Burt, A.D. (1986) Histologic spectrum of alcoholic liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 6: 221–232.
  • Maddrey, W.C., Boitnott, J.K., Bedine, M.S., Weber Jr, F.L., Mezey, E. and White Jr, R.I. (1978) Corticosteroid therapy of alcoholic hepatitis. Gastroenterology 75: 193–199.
  • Maher, J.J. (2007) Alcoholic steatohepatitis: management and prognosis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 9: 39–46.
  • Marchesini, G., Bianchi, G., Merli, M., Amodio, P., Panella, C., Loguercio, C. et al. (2003) Nutritional supplementation with branched-chain amino acids in advanced cirrhosis: a double-blind, randomized trial. Gastroenterology 124: 1792–1801.
  • Mathurin, P., Abdelnour, M., Ramond, M.J., Carbonell, N., Fartoux, L., Serfaty, L. et al. (2003) Early change in bilirubin levels is an important prognostic factor in severe alcoholic hepatitis treated with prednisolone. Hepatology 38: 1363–1369.
  • Mathurin, P., Beuzin, F., Louvet, A., Carrie-Ganne, N., Balian, A., Trinchet, J.C. et al. (2007) Fibrosis progression occurs in a subgroup of heavy drinkers with typical histological features. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 25: 1047–1054.
  • Mathurin, P., Duchatelle, V., Ramond, M.J., Degott, C., Bedossa, P., Erlinger, S. et al. (1996) Survival and prognostic factors in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis treated with prednisolone. Gastroenterology 110: 1847–1853.
  • Mathurin, P., Mendenhall, C.L., Carithers Jr, R.L., Ramond, M.J., Maddrey, W.C., Garstide, P. et al. (2002) Corticosteroids improve short-term survival in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH): individual data analysis of the last three randomized placebo controlled double blind trials of corticosteroids in severe AH. J Hepatol 36: 480–487.
  • Matloff, D.S., Selinger, M.J. and Kaplan, M.M. (1980) Hepatic transaminase activity in alocholic liver disease. Gastroenterology 78: 1389–1392.
  • McClain, C.J. and Cohen, D.A. (1989) Increased tumor necrosis factor production by monocytes in alcoholic hepatitis. Hepatology 9: 349–351.
  • McClain, C.J., Hill, D.B. and Barve, S.S. (2004a) Infliximab and prednisolone: too much of a good thing? Hepatology 39: 1488–1490.
  • McClain, C.J., Song, Z., Barve, S.S., Hill, D.B. and Deaciuc, I. (2004b) Recent advances in alcoholic liver disease. IV. Dysregulated cytokine metabolism in alcoholic liver disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 287: G497–G502.
  • McCullough, A.J. and O'Connor, J.F. (1998) Alcoholic liver disease: proposed recommendations for the American College of Gastroenterology. Am J Gastroenterol 93: 2022–2036.
  • McHutchison, J.G., Runyon, B.A., Draguesku, J.O., Cominelli, F., Person, J.L. and Castracane, J. (1991) Pentoxifylline may prevent renal impairment (hepatorenal syndrome) in severe acute alcoholic hepatitis. Hepatology 14: 96A.
  • Mendenhall, C., Bongiovanni, G., Goldberg, S., Miller, B., Moore, J., Rouster, S. et al. (1985) VA Cooperative Study on Alcoholic Hepatitis. III: Changes in protein-calorie malnutrition associated with 30 days of hospitalization with and without enteral nutritional therapy. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 9: 590–596.
  • Mendenhall, C., Roselle, G.A., Gartside, P. and Moritz, T. (1995a) Relationship of protein calorie malnutrition to alcoholic liver disease: a reexamination of data from two Veterans Administration Cooperative Studies. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 19: 635–641.
  • Mendenhall, C.L., Anderson, S., Weesner, R.E., Goldberg, S.J. and Crolic, K.A. (1984) Protein-calorie malnutrition associated with alcoholic hepatitis. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Alcoholic Hepatitis. Am J Med 76: 211–222.
  • Mendenhall, C.L., Moritz, T.E., Roselle, G.A., Morgan, T.R., Nemchausky, B.A., Tamburro, C.H. et al. (1993) A study of oral nutritional support with oxandrolone in malnourished patients with alcoholic hepatitis: results of a Department of Veterans Affairs cooperative study. Hepatology 17: 564–576.
  • Mendenhall, C.L., Moritz, T.E., Roselle, G.A., Morgan, T.R., Nemchausky, B.A., Tamburro, C.H. et al. (1995b) Protein energy malnutrition in severe alcoholic hepatitis: diagnosis and response to treatment. The VA Cooperative Study Group #275. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 19: 258–265.
  • Mendenhall, C.L., Tosch, T., Weesner, R.E., Garcia-Pont, P., Goldberg, S.J., Kiernan, T. et al. (1986) VA cooperative study on alcoholic hepatitis. II: Prognostic significance of protein-calorie malnutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 43: 213–218.
  • Menon, K.V., Stadheim, L., Kamath, P.S., Wiesner, R.H., Gores, G.J., Peine, C.J. et al. (2004) A pilot study of the safety and tolerability of etanercept in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 99: 255–260.
  • Mezey, E., Potter, J.J., Rennie-Tankersley, L., Caballeria, J. and Pares, A. (2004) A randomized placebo controlled trial of vitamin E for alcoholic hepatitis. J Hepatol 40: 40–46.
  • Miguet, M., Monnet, E., Vanlemmens, C., Gache, P., Messner, M., Hruskovsky, S. et al. (2004) Predictive factors of alcohol relapse after orthotopic liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 28: 845–851.
  • Miller, W.R., Walters, S.T. and Bennett, M.E. (2001) How effective is alcoholism treatment in the United States? J Stud Alcohol 62: 211–220.
  • Moos, R.H., King, M.J. and Patterson, M.A. (1996) Outcomes of residential treatment of substance abuse in hospital- and community-based programs. Psychiatr Serv 47: 68–74.
  • Morse, R.M. and Hurt, R.D. (1979) Screening for alcoholism. JAMA 242: 2688–2690.
  • Mueller, S., Millonig, G. and Seitz, H.K. (2009) Alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C: a frequently underestimated combination. World J Gastroenterol 15: 3462–3471.
  • Nanji, A.A., Zakim, D., Rahemtulla, A., Daly, T., Miao, L., Zhao, S. et al. (1997) Dietary saturated fatty acids down-regulate cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor alfa and reverse fibrosis in alcohol-induced liver disease in the rat. Hepatology 26: 1538–1545.
  • Naveau, S., Chollet-Martin, S., Dharancy, S., Mathurin, P., Jouet, P., Piquet, M.A. et al. (2004) A double-blind randomized controlled trial of infliximab associated with prednisolone in acute alcoholic hepatitis. Hepatology 39: 1390–1397.
  • Naveau, S., Giraud, V., Borotto, E., Aubert, A., Capron, F. and Chaput, J.C. (1997) Excess weight risk factor for alcoholic liver disease. Hepatology 25: 108–111.
  • Neuberger, J., Schulz, K.H., Day, C., Fleig, W., Berlakovich, G.A., Berenguer, M. et al. (2002) Transplantation for alcoholic liver disease. J Hepatol 36: 130–137.
  • Nguyen-Khac, E., Thevenol, T., Pique, M.-A., Benferhal, S., Goria, O., Chatelain, D. et al. (2009) Treatment of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) with corticosteroids plus N-acetyl cysteine (C+NAC) versus corticoids alone (C): a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial. Hepatology 50: 346A–347A.
  • Niemela, O. (2007) Biomarkers in alcoholism. Clin Chim Acta 377: 39–49.
  • O'Shea, R. and McCullough, A.J. (2006) Steroids or cocktails for alcoholic hepatitis. J Hepatol 44: 633–636.
  • O Shea, R.S., Dasarathy, S. and McCullough, A.J. (2009) Alcoholic liver disease. Hepatology 51: 307–328.
  • Okiyama, W., Tanaka, N., Nakajima, T., Tanaka, E., Kiyosawa, K., Gonzalez, F.J. et al. (2009) Polyenephosphatidylcholine prevents alcoholic liver disease in PPARalpha-null mice through attenuation of increases in oxidative stress. J Hepatol 50: 1236–1246.
  • Orholm, M., Sorensen, T.I., Bentsen, K., Hoybye, G., Eghoje, K. and Christoffersen, P. (1985) Mortality of alcohol abusing men prospectively assessed in relation to history of abuse and degree of liver injury. Liver 5: 253–260.
  • Pares, A., Planas, R., Torres, M., Caballeria, J., Viver, J.M., Acero, D. et al. (1998) Effects of silymarin in alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of the liver: results of a controlled, double-blind, randomized and multicenter trial. J Hepatol 28: 615–621.
  • Pfitzmann, R., Schwenzer, J., Rayes, N., Seehofer, D., Neuhaus, R. and Nussler, N.C. (2007) Long-term survival and predictors of relapse after orthotopic liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease. Liver Transpl 13: 197–205.
  • Phillips, M., Curtis, H., Portmann, B., Donaldson, N., Bomford, A. and O'Grady, J. (2006) Antioxidants versus corticosteroids in the treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis—a randomised clinical trial. J Hepatol 44: 784–790.
  • Plank, L.D., Gane, E.J., Peng, S., Muthu, C., Mathur, S., Gillanders, L. et al. (2008) Nocturnal nutritional supplementation improves total body protein status of patients with liver cirrhosis: a randomized 12-month trial. Hepatology 48: 557–566.
  • Poynard, T., Naveau, S., Doffoel, M., Boudjema, K., Vanlemmens, C., Mantion, G. et al. (1999) Evaluation of efficacy of liver transplantation in alcoholic cirrhosis using matched and simulated controls: 5-year survival. Multi-centre group. J Hepatol 30: 1130–1137.
  • Propst, A., Propst, T., Zangerl, G., Ofner, D., Judmaier, G. and Vogel,W. (1995) Prognosis and life expectancy in chronic liver disease. Dig Dis Sci 40: 1805–1815.
  • Purohit, V., Abdelmalek, M.F., Barve, S., Benevenga, N.J., Halsted, C.H., Kaplowitz, N. et al. (2007) Role of S-adenosylmethionine, folate, and betaine in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease: summary of a symposium. Am J Clin Nutr 86: 14–24.
  • Purohit, V., Russo, D. and Coates, P.M. (2004) Role of fatty liver, dietary fatty acid supplements, and obesity in the progression of alcoholic liver disease: introduction and summary of the symposium. Alcohol 34: 3–8.
  • Raetsch, C., Jia, J.D., Boigk, G., Bauer, M., Hahn, E.G., Riecken, E.O. et al. (2002) Pentoxifylline downregulates profibrogenic cytokines and procollagen I expression in rat secondary biliary fibrosis. Gut 50: 241–247.
  • Rambaldi, A. and Gluud, C. (2006) S-adenosyl-L-methionine for alcoholic liver diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2: CD002235.
  • Rambaldi, A., Jacobs, B.P. and Gluud, C. (2007) Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4: CD003620.
  • Rambaldi, A., Saconato, H.H., Christensen, E., Thorlund, K., Wetterslev, J. and Gluud, C. (2008) Systematic review: glucocorticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis—a Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomized clinical trials. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 27: 1167–1178.
  • Ramond, M.J., Poynard, T., Rueff, B., Mathurin, P., Theodore, C., Chaput, J.C. et al. (1992) A randomized trial of prednisolone in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. N Engl J Med 326: 507–512.
  • Raynard, B., Balian, A., Fallik, D., Capron, F., Bedossa, P., Chaput, J.C. et al. (2002) Risk factors of fibrosis in alcohol-induced liver disease. Hepatology 35: 635–638.
  • Ronis, M.J., Korourian, S., Zipperman, M., Hakkak, R. and Badger, T.M. (2004) Dietary saturated fat reduces alcoholic hepatotoxicity in rats by altering fatty acid metabolism and membrane composition. J Nutr 134: 904–912.
  • Savola, O., Niemela, O. and Hillbom, M. (2004) Blood alcohol is the best indicator of hazardous alcohol drinking in young adults and working-age patients with trauma. Alcohol Alcohol 39: 340–345.
  • Shakil, A.O., Pinna, A., Demetris, J., Lee, R.G., Fung, J.J. and Rakela, J. (1997) Survival and quality of life after liver transplantation for acute alcoholic hepatitis. Liver Transpl Surg 3: 240–244.
  • Sharma, P., Kumar, A., Sharma, B.C. and Sarin, S.K. (2009) Infliximab monotherapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis and predictors of survival: an open label trial. J Hepatol 50: 584–591.
  • Simon, D. and Galambos, J.T. (1988) A randomized controlled study of peripheral parenteral nutrition in moderate and severe alcoholic hepatitis. J Hepatol 7: 200–207.
  • Skude, G. and Wadstein, J. (1977) Amylase, hepatic enzymes and bilirubin in serum of chronic alcoholics. Acta Med Scand 201: 53–58.
  • Sofair, A.N., Barry, V., Manos, M.M., Thomas, A., Zaman, A., Terrault, N.A. et al. (2010) The epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed alcohol-related liver disease: results from population-based surveillance. J Clin Gastroenterol 44: 301–307.
  • Spahr, L., Rubbia-Brandt, L., Frossard, J.L., Giostra, E., Rougemont, A.L., Pugin, J. et al. (2002) Combination of steroids with infliximab or placebo in severe alcoholic hepatitis: a randomized controlled pilot study. J Hepatol 37: 448–455.
  • Spahr, L., Rubbia-Brandt, L., Pugin, J., Giostra, E., Frossard, J.L., Borisch, B. et al. (2001) Rapid changes in alcoholic hepatitis histology under steroids: correlation with soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in hepatic venous blood. J Hepatol 35: 582–589.
  • Stewart, S., Prince, M., Bassendine, M., Hudson, M., James, O., Jones, D. et al. (2007) A randomized trial of antioxidant therapy alone or with corticosteroids in acute alcoholic hepatitis. J Hepatol 47: 277–283.
  • Stickel, F., Hoehn, B., Schuppan, D. and Seitz, H.K. (2003) Review article: Nutritional therapy in alcoholic liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18: 357–373.
  • Szuster-Ciesielska, A., Daniluk, J. and Kandefer-Szerszen, M. (2002) Oxidative stress in the blood of patients with alcohol-related liver cirrhosis. Med Sci Monit 8: CR419–CR424.
  • Taieb, J., Mathurin, P., Elbim, C., Cluzel, P., Arce-Vicioso, M., Bernard, B. et al. (2000) Blood neutrophil functions and cytokine release in severe alcoholic hepatitis: effect of corticosteroids. J Hepatol 32: 579–586.
  • Tan, H.H., Virmani, S. and Martin, P. (2009) Controversies in the management of alcoholic liver disease. Mt Sinai J Med 76: 484–498.
  • Tandon, P., Goodman, K.J., Ma, M.M., Wong, W.W., Mason, A.L., Meeberg, G. et al. (2009) A shorter duration of pre-transplant abstinence predicts problem drinking after liver transplantation. Am J Gastroenterol 104: 1700–1706.
  • Teli, M.R., Day, C.P., Burt, A.D., Bennett, M.K. and James, O.F. (1995) Determinants of progression to cirrhosis or fibrosis in pure alcoholic fatty liver. Lancet 346: 987–990.
  • Thun, M.J., Peto, R., Lopez, A.D., Monaco, J.H., Henley, S.J., Heath Jr, C.W. et al. (1997) Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 337: 1705–1714.
  • Tilg, H., Jalan, R., Kaser, A., Davies, N.A., Offner, F.A., Hodges, S.J. et al. (2003) Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody therapy in severe alcoholic hepatitis. J Hepatol 38: 419–425.
  • Tome, S., Martinez-Rey, C., Gonzalez-Quintela, A., Gude, F., Brage, A., Otero, E. et al. (2002) Influence of superimposed alcoholic hepatitis on the outcome of liver transplantation for end-stage alcoholic liver disease. J Hepatol 36: 793–798.
  • Van Ness, M.M. and Diehl, A.M. (1989) Is liver biopsy useful in the evaluation of patients with chronically elevated liver enzymes? Ann Intern Med 111: 473–478.
  • Vanlemmens, C., Di Martino, V., Milan, C., Messner, M., Minello, A., Duvoux, C. et al. (2009) Immediate listing for liver transplantation versus standard care for Child-Pugh stage B alcoholic cirrhosis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 150: 153–161.
  • Veldt, B.J., Laine, F., Guillygomarc'h, A., Lauvin, L., Boudjema, K., Messner, M. et al. (2002) Indication of liver transplantation in severe alcoholic liver cirrhosis: quantitative evaluation and optimal timing. J Hepatol 36: 93–98.
  • Whitfield, K., Rambaldi, A., Wetterslev, J. and Gluud, C. (2009) Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4: CD007339.
  • Willenbring, M.L., Massey, S.H. and Gardner, M.B. (2009) Helping patients who drink too much: an evidence-based guide for primary care clinicians. Am Fam Physician 80: 44–50.
  • Williams, S.H. (2005) Medications for treating alcohol dependence. Am Fam Physician 72: 1775–1780.
  • Yin, M., Wheeler, M.D., Kono, H., Bradford, B.U., Gallucci, R.M., Luster, M.I. et al. (1999) Essential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Gastroenterology 117: 942–952.
  • You, M., Cao, Q., Liang, X., Ajmo, J.M. and Ness, G.C. (2008) Mammalian sirtuin 1 is involved in the protective action of dietary saturated fat against alcoholic fatty liver in mice. J Nutr 138: 497–501.
  • You, M., Considine, R.V., Leone, T.C., Kelly, D.P. and Crabb, D.W. (2005) Role of adiponectin in the protective action of dietary saturated fat against alcoholic fatty liver in mice. Hepatology 42: 568–577.
  • Yu, H.C., Li, S.Y., Cao, M.F., Jiang, X.Y., Feng, L., Zhao, J.J. et al. (2010) Effects of chronic ethanol consumption on levels of adipokines in visceral adipose tissues and sera of rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin 31: 461–469.

Plaats een reactie ...

Reageer op "Leverziekte veroorzaakt door alcohol, ALD - Alcohol Liver Disease. Een overzichtsartikel over de meest gebruikte behandelingsmethoden in diverse stadia"

Gerelateerde artikelen

Gerelateerde artikelen

Levertumoren, goed- en kwaadaardig. >> Leverziekte veroorzaakt door >> Patiëntenvereniging: De Nederlandse >> Leverkanker - HCC: algemene >>