Coldvirus - verkoudheidsvirus

d.d. 5 februari 2004 , met dank aan Peter en Ingrid die me hierop wezen n.a.v. publicatie in Australische krant.

Algemeen verkoudheidsvirus - coxsackievirus - zou probaat middel tegen melanomen kunnen zijn.

Onderzoekers aan de universiteit van het Royal Newcastle ziekenhuis in Australië beweren dat een simpel griepvirus/verkoudheidsvirus wel eens een probaat middel zou kunnen zijn tegen melanomen. Er worden dure woorden als grote doorbraak enz. bij gebruikt n.a.v. studieresultaten in vitro en bij dieren en lopende dit jaar worden studies gedaan bij mensen. Het verkoudheidsvirus, coxsackievirus, wordt in de melanoom geïnjecteerd. Het virus dupliceert zichzelf en valt dan melanoomcellen aan. Binnen enkele weken zouden de melanomen kleiner worden en eventueel zelfs verdwijnen. Omdat het virus zich blijft dupliceren zoekt het wellicht ook de rondzwevende melanoomcellen in de rest van het lichaam op is de verwachting van de onderzoekers. Binnen twee jaar maximaal, maar wellicht zelfs nog eerder worden dusdanige resultaten verwacht dat een gefundeerd oordeel mogelijk is of hier werkelijk sprake is van een grote doorbraak. De studie is gepubliceerd in het January 2004 nummer van  Clinical Cancer Research, the journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) niet de minste onder de medische tijdschriften overigens en ook nog eens als hoofdartikel op de voorpagina. 

Eerst het abstract van de studie en daaronder een Engelstalig krantenartikel erover dat gemakkelijker is te lezen:

Clinical Cancer Research Vol. 10, 53-60, January 2004
© 2004 American Association for Cancer Research 

Systemic Therapy of Malignant Human Melanoma Tumors by a Common Cold-Producing Enterovirus, Coxsackievirus A21 
Darren R. Shafren12, Gough G. Au1, Tam Nguyen3, Nicole G. Newcombe1, Erin S. Haley2, Leone Beagley2, E. Susanne Johansson1, Peter Hersey3 and Richard D. Barry12 
1The Picornaviral Research Unit, Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia;2 ViroTarg Pty. Ltd., Industry Development Centre, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia; and3 Immunology and Oncology Unit, Mater Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia 

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The incidence of malignant melanoma continues to increase worldwide; however, treatment of metastatic melanoma remains unsatisfactory, and there is an urgent need for development of effective targeted therapeutics. A potential biological target on the surface of malignant melanoma cells is the up-regulated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and decay-accelerating factor (DAF), relative to surrounding benign tissue. Coxsackievirus A21 (a common cold virus) targets and destroys susceptible cells via specific viral capsid interactions with surface-expressed virus receptors comprising ICAM-1 and DAF. 

Experimental Design: The oncolytic capacity of a genetically unmodified wild-type common cold-producing human enterovirus (Coxsackievirus A21, CAV21) was assessed against in vitro cultures and in vivo xenografts of malignant human melanoma cells. 

Results: In vitro studies established that human melanoma cells endogenously express elevated levels of ICAM-1/DAF and were highly susceptible to rapid viral oncolysis by CAV21 infection, whereas ICAM-1/DAF-expressing peripheral blood lymphocytes were refractile to infection. In vivo studies revealed that the tumor burden of nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing multiple s.c. melanoma xenografts was rapidly reduced by oncolysis mediated by a single administration of CAV21. The antitumor activity of CAV21 was characterized by highly efficient systemic spread of progeny CAV21, with oncolysis of tumors also occurring at sites distant to the primary site of viral administration. 

Conclusions: Overall, the findings presented herein demonstrate an important proof of principle using administration of replication-competent CAV21 as a potential biological oncolytic agent in the control of human metastatic melanoma. 

Het krantenartikel:


The common cold virus most people try their hardest to avoid is very likely to be the cure for malignant melanoma, Australian scientists have discovered in a major breakthrough announced. A team of researchers at the University of Newcastle believe they have made an exciting discovery in the treatment of the usually deadly skin cancer of which Australia with its fair-skinned people and hot sun has the highest rate in the world. "We have established that melanoma cells can be destroyed by infecting them with a common cold virus," the lead researcher, associate professor Darren Shafren said. "We believe this is a significant break-through in the development of the treatment of melanoma. We are very excited about it." "The results we have had using human cells and also in animal studies have been very exciting. If we can replicate this success in human trials then it could be available within a year or two." The research has just been published as the cover story in the January 2004 edition of Clinical Cancer Research, the journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). Shafron, 40, believes a treatment of the disease will be tested first on a few terminal patients and could be available even for advanced cases almost immediately. But it would be subject to regulatory hurdles, which could take longer. "I would say it should be available within one to two years, but it could be a lot earlier than that if we get lucky," Shafron told AFP in an interview. "We are pretty optimistic about it as long as we can get through the red tape. I can't really say too much about it, but we have stuff ready to go and we just have to do the best we can to get through the regulatory authorities." Skin cancer is so common here that it would be of huge benefit in a country in which one in every two people will develop some form of the disease at some stage. Some 300,000 Australians will visit a doctor this year to have a skin cancer removed. Almost 9000 new cases of melanoma are diagnosed each year, about 1000 Australians die of melanoma, which is the fifth most common form of cancer. The projected process involves injecting the common cold virus, the coxsackievirus, into the melanoma site, the virus replicates itself and is expected then to start to kill off the melanoma. Shafron says that within weeks, there is a reduction in the size of the melanoma and it eventually disappears. "When the secondary action begins, we expect the virus to circulate the body finding and killing off melanomas in the same manner with the effect that it will seek out and kill melanomas that may be undetectable," he added. "This is a community occurring virus, not a manufactured drug or a genetically altered virus. We believe it could even be effective for people with advanced melanoma." The work, based on technology developed by the picornavirus department at the university over the past four years, is being conducted at the local biotechnology company ViroTarg's laboratory in the Royal Newcastle Hospital 150 kilometres north of Sydney. AFP


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