Vaccination with dendritic cell (DC)/multiple myeloma (MM) fusions has been shown to induce the expansion of circulating multiple myeloma–reactive lymphocytes and consolidation of clinical response following autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (auto-HCT).

Patients and Methods:

In this randomized phase II trial (NCT02728102), we assessed the effect of DC/MM fusion vaccination, GM-CSF, and lenalidomide maintenance as compared with control arms of GM-CSF and lenalidomide or lenalidomide maintenance alone on clinical response rates and induction of multiple myeloma–specific immunity at 1-year posttransplant.


The study enrolled 203 patients, with 140 randomized posttransplantation. Vaccine production was successful in 63 of 68 patients. At 1 year, rates of CR were 52.9% (vaccine) and 50% (control; P = 0.37, 80% CI 44.5%, 61.3%, and 41.6%, 58.4%, respectively), and rates of VGPR or better were 85.3% (vaccine) and 77.8% (control; P = 0.2). Conversion to CR at 1 year was 34.8% (vaccine) and 27.3% (control; P = 0.4). Vaccination induced a statistically significant expansion of multiple myeloma–reactive T cells at 1 year compared with before vaccination (P = 0.024) and in contrast to the nonvaccine arm (P = 0.026). Single-cell transcriptomics revealed clonotypic expansion of activated CD8 cells and shared dominant clonotypes between patients at 1-year posttransplant.


DC/MM fusion vaccination with lenalidomide did not result in a statistically significant increase in CR rates at 1 year posttransplant but was associated with a significant increase in circulating multiple myeloma–reactive lymphocytes indicative of tumor-specific immunity. Site-specific production of a personalized cell therapy with centralized product characterization was effectively accomplished in the context of a multicenter cooperative group study.

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Supplementary data