30 juni 2012: Het volledige studierapport van Vitamin D, sunlight and prostate cancer risk is gratis in te zien op de website van het NCBI. Onderaan referentielijst toegevoegd van studies gerelateerd aan dit onderwerp.

December 2008: Bron: Pubmed.

Hier de abstracten van enkele studies (ook een overzichtstudie van gerandomiserde studies, die onderzochten wat en hoe hoog en op wat voor manier de vitamine D gehaltes in bloed in de winter kunnen worden beïnlvoed door bv. suppletie. Vooral hormoon gerelateerde vormen van kanker zoals prostaatkanker, en borstkanker lijken hierdoor te worden beïnvloed. Voor leken die goed engels begrijpen is hier een video te zien met een lezing van dr. Mercola over de rol van vitamine D voor onze gezondheid en ook als preventie van kanker.

1: Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1528-34.

Efficacy of food fortification on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations: systematic review.

Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

BACKGROUND: Many residents of the United States and Canada depend on dietary sources of vitamin D to help maintain vitamin D status. Because few natural food sources contain vitamin D, fortified foods may be required. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the effects of vitamin D-fortified foods on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations.

DESIGN: We searched MEDLINE (1966 to June Week 3 2006), Embase, CINAHL, AMED, Biological Abstracts, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing vitamin D-fortified foods with a control and reporting serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility, assessed trial quality, and extracted relevant data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Meta-analyses of absolute mean change in 25(OH)D were conducted by using a random-effects model, with evaluation of heterogeneity.

RESULTS: Nine RCTs (n = 889 subjects) were included, of which 8 consistently showed a significant beneficial effect of food fortification on 25(OH)D concentrations. Although 7 RCTs (n = 585 subjects) potentially were meta-analyzable, we were unable to combine the overall results because of significant heterogeneity. The individual treatment effects ranged from 14.5 (95% CIs: 10.6, 18.4) nmol/L to 34.5 (17.64, 51.36) nmol/L (3.4-25 microg vitamin D/d). Subgroup analyses showed a reduction in heterogeneity and significant treatment effect when 4 trials that used milk as the fortified food source were combined. CONCLUSION: Most trials were small in size and inadequately reported allocation concealment, but results showed that vitamin D-fortified foods improved vitamin D status in adults.

PMID: 19064512 [PubMed - in process]


1: Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1535-42.



Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adults.

Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College, Cork, Ireland. k.cashman@ucc.ie

BACKGROUND: Knowledge gaps have contributed to considerable variation among international dietary recommendations for vitamin D.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish the distribution of dietary vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations above several proposed cutoffs (ie, 25, 37.5, 50, and 80 nmol/L) during wintertime after adjustment for the effect of summer sunshine exposure and diet. DESIGN: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind 22-wk intervention study was conducted in men and women aged 20-40 y (n = 238) by using different supplemental doses (0, 5, 10, and 15 microg/d) of vitamin D(3) throughout the winter. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunoassay at baseline (October 2006) and endpoint (March 2007).

RESULTS: There were clear dose-related increments (P < 0.0001) in serum 25(OH)D with increasing supplemental vitamin D(3). The slope of the relation between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D was 1.96 nmol x L(-1) x microg(-1) intake. The vitamin D intake that maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations of >25 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample was 8.7 microg/d. This intake ranged from 7.2 microg/d in those who enjoyed sunshine exposure, 8.8 microg/d in those who sometimes had sun exposure, and 12.3 microg/d in those who avoided sunshine. Vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations of >37.5, >50, and >80 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample were 19.9, 28.0, and 41.1 microg/d, respectively. CONCLUSION: The range of vitamin D intakes required to ensure maintenance of wintertime vitamin D status [as defined by incremental cutoffs of serum 25(OH)D] in the vast majority (>97.5%) of 20-40-y-old adults, considering a variety of sun exposure preferences, is between 7.2 and 41.1 microg/d.

PMID: 19064513 [PubMed - in process]


11 november 2004: Bron: Pubmed

Bepaalde vormen van vitamine D zorgen voor inkapseling/doden van prostaatkankercellen in dierproeven. Al in 1996 toonden laboratoriumstudies aan dat vitamine D. in vitro kankercellen van prostaat, leukemie en borst doodde zonder enige bijwerkingen. Excuses maar we zijn geen medisch deskundige en kunnen niet precies aangeven welke vormen van vitamine D. hier zijn gebruikt, maar uw arts kan dat ongetwijfeld wel. Hier twee studies met meest recente bovenaan gepubliceerd. Deze studies komen uit Pubmed-Medline, waar nog meer studies aangeven dat bepaalde vormen van vitamine D. effectief werken in een behandeling van kanker.

Anticancer Res. 2003 Jan-Feb;23(1A):283-9.

Ability of potent vitamin D3 analogs to inhibit growth of prostate cancer cells in vivo.
Vegesna V, O'Kelly J, Said J, Uskokovic M, Binderup L, Koeffle HP. Cedars-Sinai Medical Center/UCLA School of Medicine, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.
,br> BACKGROUND: Studies have identified analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], which in vitro are 10- to 3,000-fold more active than 1,25(OH)2D3. We compared in vivo the anti-cancer activity of three potent vitamin D3 analogs and 1,25(OH)2D3 at near to each of their maximal tolerated dose (MTD).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human LNCaP prostate cancer xenografts were grown in nude mice and the animals were treated with intraperitoneal injections of either diluant; 1,25(OH)2D3; 1,25-Dihydroxy-20epi-22-oxa-24,26,27-trisho-mocholecalciferol (KH 1060); 1,25-Dihydroxy-22E,24E-diene-24,26,27-trishomocholecalciferol (EB 1039); and 1,25-Dihydroxy-16-ene-24-oxo-19-norcholecalciferol (RO 26-9114). Tumor sizes were measured weekly and tumor weights were measured at autopsy on the 12th week.

RESULTS: Each of the analogs equally and markedly inhibited growth of the prostate cancer xenografts. The 1,25(OH)2D3 initially inhibited growth but, by the time of sacrifice, the tumors were nearly the same size as diluant controls. The histological examination of the tumors showed that the analogs produced tumor necrosis and microcalcification. None of the mice developed hypercalcemia, which is the major toxicity of vitamin D3 compounds.

CONCLUSION: The MTD of the analogs varied by 400-fold but each had similar efficacy suggesting that, when choosing a vitamin D analog for clinical study, overall efficacy without toxicity is more important than the total amount of the compound that can be administered. In summary, we have identified three vitamin D analogs that show marked potency in vivo to inhibit growth of human prostate cancer xenografts; each had no detectable toxicity. This study should help lay the foundation for clinical studies.

PMID: 12680225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hier het abstract van de in vitro studie uit 1998

Cancer Res. 1998 Aug 1;58(15):3370-5.

19-nor-26,27-bishomo-vitamin D3 analogs: a unique class of potent inhibitors of proliferation of prostate, breast, and hematopoietic cancer cells.

Kubota T, Koshizuka K, Koike M, Uskokovic M, Miyoshi I, Koeffler HP. Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, 90048, USA.

Vitamin D3 [1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)] modulates the proliferation and differentiation of many cell types. Analogs of 1,25(OH)2D3 that have greater potency may become adjuvant therapy for breast and prostate cancers, myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myelogenous leukemia in remission and other cell types, especially in the setting of low disease burden. A new class of analogs of 1,25(OH)2D3 has been synthesized that has a novel 19-nor motif, as well as incorporating many structural elements previously shown to increase potency. These analogs were examined for their effects on prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP, and DU 145), a human breast cell line (MCF-7), and an acute myeloid leukemia cell line (HL-60). Dose-response clonogenic studies showed that each of these analogs had more potent antiproliferative activities against the cancer cells than 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1,25-(OH)2-16,23Z-diene-26,27-bishomo-19-nor-D3 (Ro 27-2014) was the most potent analog [10-fold increased activity compared to 1,25(OH)2D3]. Further studies were performed using Ro 27-2014. Pulse-exposure studies showed that a 5-day pulse-exposure to Ro 27-2014 (10(-7) M) in liquid culture was adequate to achieve a 50% inhibition of MCF-7 clonal growth in soft agar in the absence of the analog, suggesting that the growth inhibition mediated by the analog was irreversible. Cell cycle analyses using MCF-7 cells showed that Ro 27-2014 (10(-7) M for 4 days) induced a significant increase in the number of cells in G0-G1 (72.8+/-8.9% versus 49.9+/-3.5% in control cells), with a concomitant decrease in the percent of cells in S phase (13.1+/-6.2% versus 35.8+/-3.5% in control cells). The chief toxicity of vitamin D3 compounds is hypercalcemia, and therefore, we examined calcemic activity of Ro 27-2014 in mice and found it not to induce hypercalcemia at doses of 0.05 microg i.p. three times per week. In contrast, the same dose of a 19-nor vitamin D3 compound with 6 fluorines on the side chain (1,25-(OH)2-16-ene-23-yne-26,27-F6-19-nor-D3), although also having potent anticancer activity, caused severe hypercalcemia (18 mg/dl). In summary, 19-nor vitamin D3 compounds with desaturation and lengthening of their side chains result in a series of compounds with a good therapeutic index, having potent anticancer activity and low toxicity.

PMID: 9699668 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Vitamin D, sunlight and prostate cancer risk


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