24 juni 2012: het volledige studierapport van onderstaande studie is gratis in te zien op de website van Pubmed. Bij laatste studie in dit artikel ook link naar volledige studierapport toegevoegd. Plus referentielisjt van 76 andere studies gerelateerd aan zelfde onderwerp

8 mei 2004: Bron Am J Cardiol. 2005 May 1;95(9):1060-4

TM = Transcedente Meditatie stelt sterven aan alle oorzaken uit met 23% in tijd, voor sterven aan hart- en vaatziektes met 30% en sterven aan kanker werd met 49% aan tijd uitgesteld. Dit zijn de uitkomsten uit een 18 jarige gerandomiseerde studie gedaan o.a. aan Harvard, Universiteit van Iowa, Medical College van Georgia, West Oakland Health Center en Maharishi Universiteit van Management. De studie volgde 18 jaar lang 202 volwassenen zowel mannen als vrouwen, vanaf 55 jaar oud en gemiddelde leeftijd 71 jaar, met een mild verhoogde bloeddruk bij aanvang van de studie. Onder deze beschreven studie staat abstract van andere gerandomiseerde studie die bewijst dat TM bij Amerikanen van Afrikaanse oorsprong een significant positief effect had op verhoogde bloeddruk, al na 1 jaar onderzoek

Am J Cardiol. 2005 May 1;95(9):1060-4.

Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons >/=55 years of age with systemic hypertension.

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Rainforth M, Salerno JW, Hartz A, Arndt S, Barnes VA, Nidich SI.
Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, Iowa.

Psychosocial stress contributes to high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous controlled studies have associated decreasing stress with the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program with lower blood pressure. The objective of the present study was to evaluate, over the long term, all-cause and cause-specific mortality in older subjects who had high blood pressure and who participated in randomized controlled trials that included the TM program and other behavioral stress-decreasing interventions. Patient data were pooled from 2 published randomized controlled trials that compared TM, other behavioral interventions, and usual therapy for high blood pressure.
There were 202 subjects, including 77 whites (mean age 81 years) and 125 African-American (mean age 66 years) men and women. In these studies, average baseline blood pressure was in the prehypertensive or stage I hypertension range. Follow-up of vital status and cause of death over a maximum of 18.8 years was determined from the National Death Index. Survival analysis was used to compare intervention groups on mortality rates after adjusting for study location. Mean follow-up was 7.6 +/- 3.5 years.

Compared with combined controls, the TM group showed a 23% decrease in the primary outcome of all-cause mortality after maximum follow-up (relative risk 0.77, p = 0.039). Secondary analyses showed a 30% decrease in the rate of cardiovascular mortality (relative risk 0.70, p = 0.045) and a 49% decrease in the rate of mortality due to cancer (relative risk 0.49, p = 0.16) in the TM group compared with combined controls. These results suggest that a specific stress-decreasing approach used in the prevention and control of high blood pressure, such as the TM program, may contribute to decreased mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease in older subjects who have systemic hypertension.

PMID: 15842971 [PubMed - in process]

Hier een klein Engelstalig artikel over deze studie. Het volledige studierapport van onderstaande studie kunt u gratis inzien op de website van Pubmed.

Meditation found to extend lifespan

An 18-year U.S. study has determined transcendental meditation reduces death rates by 23 percent, the American Journal of Cardiology reported. The first-of-its-kind, long-term, randomized trial evaluated 202 men and women, average age 71, who had mildly elevated blood pressure.

Subjects in the study participated in the non-drug stress-reduction program that uses behavioral techniques such as mindfulness or progressive muscle relaxation or health education.

The study found that compared to combined controls, the mediation group showed a 23 percent reduction in the rate of death from all causes, a 30 percent reduction in the rate of death from cardiovascular disease and a 49 percent reduction in the rate of death from cancer.

Researchers collaborated on the study from Harvard, University of Iowa, Medical College of Georgia, West Oakland Health Center and Maharishi University of Management. Am J Hypertens. 2005 Jan;18(1):88-98.

A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year.

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Orme-Johnson DW, Rainforth M, Salerno JW, Sheppard W, Castillo-Richmond A, Barnes VA, Nidich SI.
Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, Iowa, USA. rschneider@mum.edu

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress has been implicated in the disproportionately higher rates of hypertension among African Americans. This randomized controlled trial compared the effects of two stress reduction techniques and a health education control program on hypertension during a period of 1 year in African-American men and women (N = 150, mean age 49 +/- 10 years, mean blood pressure (BP) = 142/95 mm Hg) at an urban community health center.

METHODS: Interventions included 20 min twice a day of Transcendental Meditation (TM) or progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), or participation in conventional health education (HE) classes. All subjects continued usual medical care. Outcomes assessed were systolic BP and diastolic BP at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment, analyzed by repeated measures ANCOVA.

RESULTS: The TM group showed decreases in systolic BP/diastolic BP of -3.1/-5.7 mm Hg compared to -0.5/-2.9 mm Hg for PMR or HE, (P = .12 to .17 for systolic BP, P = .01 for diastolic BP). In addition the TM group demonstrated reduced use of antihypertensive medication relative to increases for PMR (P = .001) and HE (P = .09) groups. Group analysis by gender showed that women practicing TM had decreased BP (-7.3/-6.9 mm Hg) significantly more than women practicing PMR (0.7/-2.7 mm Hg) or HE (-.07/-3.0 mm Hg) (P .01 to .03). The change in men praticing TM (0.2 /-4.7 mm Hg) was greater than men practicing HE (-0.9/-2.0 mm Hg) for diastolic BP only (P = .09,) and not different from PMR men (-2.0/-3.1).

CONCLUSIONS: A selected stress reduction approach, the Transcendental Meditation program, may be useful as an adjunct in the long-term treatment of hypertension in African Americans.

PMID: 15691622 [PubMed - in process]



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