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29 oktober 2020: zie ook dit artikel: 

https://kanker-actueel.nl/immuunsysteem-versterken-bij-risicogroepen-en-zorgpersoneel-is-betere-aanpak-dan-wachten-op-vaccin-aldus-immunoloog-dr-carla-peeters.html

18 oktober 2020: Bron: PLOS

Twee nieuwe studies tonen aan dat de waarden van vitamine D in het bloed (bloedspiegel) de kansen op een besmetting met het coronavirus - Covid-19 sterk beïnvloed. Lagere vitamine-D waarden geven grotere kans op ernstige klachten en kans op overlijden wordt hoger. Normale vitamine D waarden geven veel minder kans op een positieve test voor een Covid-19 besmetting. 

Het lijkt dus verstandig om uw vitamine D waarden eens te laten meten bij de huisarts en bij lage waarden preventief vitamine D (25-hydroxyvitamine D) te nemen. Advies is een vitamine D inname van 100 mcg (4000 IE) per dag. 

Uit een studie gepubliceerd in PLOS (onderzoeksleider vitamine D-expert dr. Michael Holick) bleek uit de analyse van de bloedgegevens van ruim 190.000 proefpersonen dat van al die mensen 9,3% een positieve coronatest had gekregen.
Uit die gegevens bleek ook dat mensen met een vitamine D-tekort (<50 nmol/l) 54% meer kans hebben op een positieve PCR-test in vergelijking met mensen met een normale vitamine D-bloedspiegel (>75 nmol/l).

Ook bleek dat hoe hoger de vitamine D-spiegel, hoe kleiner de kans op een positieve test. Voor iedere toename van de vitamine D-spiegel met 2,5 nmol/l nam het risico op een positieve uitslag met 1,6% af.

Zie voor studierapport: 

SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels

Uit een tweede studie bij 489 proefpersonen werd 15% van de deelnemers positief getest op het coronavirus - Covid-19. Ongeveer 25 procent daarvan had een vitamine D-tekort. Zij hadden volgens de onderzoekers 77% meer kans op een positieve PCR-test dan deelnemers met normale vitamine D waarden.
Ook kwam uit die studie naar voren dat mensen met een niet-blanke huid, waarvan bekend is dat die vaker een vitamine D tekort hebben – 2,5 keer meer kans hadden op een positieve PCR-coronatest.

Voor dat studierapport zie: 

Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results

Hier de abstracten van bovengenoemde studies:

SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels

SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels

  • Harvey W. Kaufman, 
  • Justin K. Niles, 
  • Martin H. Kroll, 
  • Caixia Bi, 
  • Michael F. Holick 
x

Abstract

Until treatment and vaccine for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) becomes widely available, other methods of reducing infection rates should be explored. This study used a retrospective, observational analysis of deidentified tests performed at a national clinical laboratory to determine if circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity rates. Over 190,000 patients from all 50 states with SARS-CoV-2 results performed mid-March through mid-June, 2020 and matching 25(OH)D results from the preceding 12 months were included. Residential zip code data was required to match with US Census data and perform analyses of race/ethnicity proportions and latitude. A total of 191,779 patients were included (median age, 54 years [interquartile range 40.4–64.7]; 68% female. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was 9.3% (95% C.I. 9.2–9.5%) and the mean seasonally adjusted 25(OH)D was 31.7 (SD 11.7). The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was higher in the 39,190 patients with “deficient” 25(OH)D values (<20 ng/mL) (12.5%, 95% C.I. 12.2–12.8%) than in the 27,870 patients with “adequate” values (30–34 ng/mL) (8.1%, 95% C.I. 7.8–8.4%) and the 12,321 patients with values ≥55 ng/mL (5.9%, 95% C.I. 5.5–6.4%). The association between 25(OH)D levels and SARS-CoV-2 positivity was best fitted by the weighted second-order polynomial regression, which indicated strong correlation in the total population (R2 = 0.96) and in analyses stratified by all studied demographic factors. The association between lower SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates and higher circulating 25(OH)D levels remained significant in a multivariable logistic model adjusting for all included demographic factors (adjusted odds ratio 0.984 per ng/mL increment, 95% C.I. 0.983–0.986; p<0.001). SARS-CoV-2 positivity is strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels, a relationship that persists across latitudes, races/ethnicities, both sexes, and age ranges. Our findings provide impetus to explore the role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.

Multivariable analysis tested whether vitamin D status before COVID-19 testing was associated with testing positive for COVID-19, controlling for demographic and comorbidity indicators.

Original Investigation 
Infectious Diseases
September 3, 2020

Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results

JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(9):e2019722. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19722

Question  Is vitamin D status, reflecting vitamin D levels and treatment, associated with test results for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Findings  In this cohort study of 489 patients who had a vitamin D level measured in the year before COVID-19 testing, the relative risk of testing positive for COVID-19 was 1.77 times greater for patients with likely deficient vitamin D status compared with patients with likely sufficient vitamin D status, a difference that was statistically significant.

Meaning  These findings appear to support a role of vitamin D status in COVID-19 risk; randomized clinical trials are needed to determine whether broad population interventions and interventions among groups at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 could reduce COVID-19 incidence.

Abstract

Importance  Vitamin D treatment has been found to decrease the incidence of viral respiratory tract infection, especially in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Whether vitamin D is associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence is unknown.

Objective  To examine whether the last vitamin D status before COVID-19 testing is associated with COVID-19 test results.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This retrospective cohort study at an urban academic medical center included patients with a 25-hydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol level measured within 1 year before being tested for COVID-19 from March 3 to April 10, 2020.

Exposures  Vitamin D deficiency was defined by the last measurement of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol less than 20 ng/mL or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol less than 18 pg/mL before COVID-19 testing. Treatment changes were defined by changes in vitamin D type and dose between the date of the last vitamin D level measurement and the date of COVID-19 testing. Vitamin D deficiency and treatment changes were combined to categorize the most recent vitamin D status before COVID-19 testing as likely deficient (last level deficient and treatment not increased), likely sufficient (last level not deficient and treatment not decreased), and 2 groups with uncertain deficiency (last level deficient and treatment increased, and last level not deficient and treatment decreased).

Main Outcomes and Measures  The outcome was a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test result. Multivariable analysis tested whether vitamin D status before COVID-19 testing was associated with testing positive for COVID-19, controlling for demographic and comorbidity indicators.

Results  A total of 489 patients (mean age, 49.2 [18.4] years; 366 [75%] women; and 331 [68%] race other than White) had a vitamin D level measured in the year before COVID-19 testing. Vitamin D status before COVID-19 testing was categorized as likely deficient for 124 participants (25%), likely sufficient for 287 (59%), and uncertain for 78 (16%). Overall, 71 participants (15%) tested positive for COVID-19. In multivariate analysis, testing positive for COVID-19 was associated with increasing age up to age 50 years (relative risk, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P = .02); non-White race (relative risk, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.26-5.12; P = .009), and likely deficient vitamin D status (relative risk, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.81; P = .02) compared with likely sufficient vitamin D status. Predicted COVID-19 rates in the deficient group were 21.6% (95% CI, 14.0%-29.2%) vs 12.2%(95% CI, 8.9%-15.4%) in the sufficient group.

Conclusions and Relevance  In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, likely deficient vitamin D status was associated with increased COVID-19 risk, a finding that suggests that randomized trials may be needed to determine whether vitamin D affects COVID-19 risk.

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