18 mei 2020: van onderstaande studie zijn geen updates tot zover. Wel kwam ik op een studie die een overzicht geeft van hoe vaccins werken en in welke combinaties de beste resultaten worden bereikt.

Turning the corner on therapeutic cancer vaccines

Het is teveel om uit deze reviewstudie te citeren en beter om zelf de studie te bekijken. Klik op de titel hierboven. Of bekijk de 166 referenties onderaan dit artikel..

Onderaan artikel staat het abstract van deze reviewstudie met referentielijst. 

4 december 2017: klik op de titel:

Radiotherapy and MVA-MUC1-IL-2 vaccine act synergistically for inducing specific immunity to MUC-1 tumor antigen

Abstract

Background

We previously demonstrated that tumor irradiation potentiates cancer vaccines using genetic modification of tumor cells in murine tumor models. To investigate whether tumor irradiation augments the immune response to MUC1 tumor antigen, we have tested the efficacy of tumor irradiation combined with an MVA-MUC1-IL2 cancer vaccine (Transgene TG4010) for murine renal adenocarcinoma (Renca) cells transfected with MUC1.

Methods

Established subcutaneous Renca-MUC1 tumors were treated with 8 Gy radiation on day 11 and peritumoral injections of MVA-MUC1-IL2 vector on day 12 and 17, or using a reverse sequence of vaccine followed by radiation. Growth delays were monitored by tumor measurements and histological responses were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Specific immunity was assessed by challenge with Renca-MUC1 cells. Generation of tumor-specific T cells was detected by IFN-γ production from splenocytes stimulated in vitro with tumor lysates using ELISPOT assays.

Results

Tumor growth delays observed by tumor irradiation combined with MVA-MUC1-IL-2 vaccine were significantly more prolonged than those observed by vaccine, radiation, or radiation with MVA empty vector. The sequence of cancer vaccine followed by radiation two days later resulted in 55–58% complete responders and 60% mouse long-term survival. This sequence was more effective than that of radiation followed by vaccine leading to 24–30% complete responders and 30% mouse survival. Responding mice were immune to challenge with Renca-MUC1 cells, indicating the induction of specific tumor immunity. Histology studies of regressing tumors at 1 week after therapy, revealed extensive tumor destruction and a heavy infiltration of CD45+ leukocytes including F4/80+ macrophages, CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and CD4+ helper T cells. The generation of tumor-specific T cells by combined therapy was confirmed by IFN-γ secretion in tumor-stimulated splenocytes. An abscopal effect was measured by rejection of an untreated tumor on the contralateral flank to the tumor treated with radiation and vaccine.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that cancer vaccine given prior to local tumor irradiation augments an immune response targeted at tumor antigens that results in specific anti-tumor immunity. These findings support further exploration of the combination of radiotherapy with cancer vaccines for the treatment of cancer.

Exploration of interactions between the immune system and cancer has elucidated the adaptations that enable cancer cells to suppress and evade immune attack. This has led to breakthroughs in the development of new drugs, and, subsequently, to opportunities to combine these with cancer vaccines and dramatically increase patient responses. Here we review this recent progress, highlighting key steps that are bringing the promise of therapeutic cancer vaccines within reach.

Turning the corner on therapeutic cancer vaccines

Abstract

Recent advances in several areas are rekindling interest and enabling progress in the development of therapeutic cancer vaccines. These advances have been made in target selection, vaccine technology, and methods for reversing the immunosuppressive mechanisms exploited by cancers. Studies testing different tumor antigens have revealed target properties that yield high tumor versus normal cell specificity and adequate immunogenicity to affect clinical efficacy. A few tumor-associated antigens, normal host proteins that are abnormally expressed in cancer cells, have been demonstrated to serve as good targets for immunotherapies, although many do not possess the needed specificity or immunogenicity. Neoantigens, which arise from mutated proteins in cancer cells, are truly cancer-specific and can be highly immunogenic, though the vast majority are unique to each patient’s cancer and thus require development of personalized therapies. Lessons from previous cancer vaccine expeditions are teaching us the type and magnitude of immune responses needed, as well as vaccine technologies that can achieve these responses. For example, we are learning which vaccine approaches elicit the potent, balanced, and durable CD4 plus CD8 T cell expansion necessary for clinical efficacy. Exploration of interactions between the immune system and cancer has elucidated the adaptations that enable cancer cells to suppress and evade immune attack. This has led to breakthroughs in the development of new drugs, and, subsequently, to opportunities to combine these with cancer vaccines and dramatically increase patient responses. Here we review this recent progress, highlighting key steps that are bringing the promise of therapeutic cancer vaccines within reach.

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