4 juli 2022: Bron:  2022 Apr; 14(7): 1398. Published online 2022 Mar 27.


Uit een meta-analyse van verschillende studies (7 studies met totaal bijna 50.000 deelnemers voldeden aan de criteria van de meta-analyse) blijkt dat het volgen van een dieet van voornamelijk onbewerkt voedsel aangevuld met volkoren granen, magere zuivel en magere eiwitbronnen een goed effect heeft op het ontstaan van depressiviteit. De mensen volgden eigenlijk een mediterraan dieet, een dieet met veel groenten, fruit, peulvruchten, noten, zaden, olijven, volle granen, extra vierge olijfolie en regelmatig vis. De mensen uit de dieetgroepen aten veel minder snoep, rood vlees, en bewerkte voedingsmiddelen in vergelijking met controlegroepen. 

Het berekende effect over alle 7 studies verdeeld varieerde van klein (Cohen's d = 0,32) tot zeer groot (Cohen's d = 1,82).

In onderstaande grafiek een overzicht van welke studies zijn meegenomen in de meta-analyse.

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Uit het studierapport gekopieerd en klik op de links (nummers van de referenties) voor verdere informatie:

All studies targeted adult populations (e.g., ≥18 years) except one [] which included participants aged from 17 to 35 years. Of the remaining six studies, two considered adults across the lifespan [,,], two young adults (e.g., 18–30 years) [,] and one examined older participants (50–79 years) []. Three studies identified existing depressive symptomology, either self or medically diagnosed [,,], and one study focused on a diagnosis of hypertension []. Three studies targeted populations with poor diet quality [,,]. The majority of the studies included males and females; however, two studies [,] involved exclusively female participants and another did not specify a gender breakdown []. Additional details are found in Table 2.

Het volledige studierapport is gratis in te zien dus indien geïnteresseerd kunt u zelf de resultaten en studieopzet bekijken. Klik daarvoor op de titel:

Associated Data

Supplementary Materials

Abstract

This systematic literature review examined whole food or whole diet interventions to treat depression. The inclusion criteria encompassed adults, depression, a recognized depression scale and a whole food or diet intervention. APA PsychINFO, CINAHL, the Cochrance Central Register of Controlled Trails, MEDLINE and Scopus were searched for original research addressing diet as a treatment for depression in adult populations. The quality of the study was assessed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist. Seven studies; with 49,156 participants; met the eligibility criteria. All these studies found positive outcomes with depression levels decreasing after dietary intervention. The calculated effect size varied from small (Cohen’s d = 0.32) to very large (Cohen’s d = 1.82). The inconsistent nature of the studies limited the synthesis of the data. Recommendations are provided to enhance future study design and measurement outcomes. Overall, the findings show a positive result for diets that promote an increased intake of fresh produce, wholegrains, low-fat dairy and lean protein sources, while also decreasing the intake of processed and high-fat foods. No funding was provided for this review. The protocol for this review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020210426).


5. Conclusions

The current review provides some support for whole diet and whole food interventions as an adjunctive treatment to improve depression symptomology. The available studies are limited by factors such as duration and small sample sizes, and are inconsistent in design. However, all studies showed a reduction in scores assessing depression. This suggests that whole food and whole diet interventions should be further investigated to identify the mechanisms and durations required for improved outcomes. Further studies in wider population groups are required, as is a greater control of confounding factors and their impacts on depression, along with a greater care of selection of the depression scales used to measure outcomes.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Andrew Woodward, statistical consultant at the University of Canberra, for his advice re data analysis and presentation.

Supplementary Materials

The following are available online at https://www.mdpi.com/article/10.3390/nu14071398/s1, Supplement S1: Search strategy.

Author Contributions

S.O. and M.M. were first and second reviewers. C.R.K.-A. was third reviewer. M.T. contributed to the conception and design of the review, acquisition and management of data and review of the manuscript for publication. S.O., M.M. and C.R.K.-A. contributed to the conception and design of the review, acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data and preparation of the manuscript for publication. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This research received no external funding.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Footnotes

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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