Raadpleeg ook artikel over aanpak met dieet en niet-toxische middelen en behandelingen specifiek voor Multiple myeloma - Kahler.

Of lees het boek Levend Bewijs van Michael Gearing-Tosh, echt een aanrader voor mensen met multiple myeloma

2 augustus 2019: Bron: The Lancet

Al eerder was bekend (juli 2017) dat de FDA twee fase III studies met pembrolizumab bij multiple myeloma (ziekte van Kahler) had stopgezet. Deze week verscheen het officiele studierapport over die studie: Pembrolizumab Plus Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone in Patients With Treatment-Naïve Multiple Myeloma in The Lancet.

Kernpunten uit deze studie:

Deze fase III-studie was bedoeld om lenalidomide en dexamethason met of zonder pembrolizumab te evalueren bij patiënten die niet in aanmerking kwamen voor transplantatie met nieuw gediagnosticeerde multiple myeloma (ziekte van Kahler). De studie werd vroegtijdig stopgezet vanwege het aantal sterfgevallen in de pembrolizumab-groep. Ernstige bijwerkingen werden waargenomen in 54% van de pembrolizumab-groep vergeleken met 39% in de controlegroep.

De conclusie luidt dan ook: De risico's van de toevoeging van pembrolizumab aan lenalidomide en dexamethason bij patiënten met nieuw gediagnosticeerde multiple myeloma lijken groter dan de voordelen.

The message is quite clear and unequivocal: combinations of pembrolizumab with immunomodulatory drugs (IMIDs) carry a significant risk of added toxicity in the treatment of myeloma.

De andere stopgezette studie: Pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-183): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial

had in feite dezelfde boodschap al werd deze studie uitgevoerd bij patienten met een recidief van myeloma en met pembrolizumab aanvullend op een ander medicijn namelijk pomalidomide:

Kernpunten uit die studie: 

  • This phase III trial evaluated pomalidomide and dexamethasone with or without pembrolizumab in the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. The trial was stopped early due to excess risks in the pembrolizumab group, which were judged to outweigh the benefits.
  • Serious adverse effects were observed in 63% of patients in the pembrolizumab group compared with 46% in the control group.

Hier de abstracten van de studies: 

Pembrolizumab Plus Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone in Patients With Treatment-Naïve Multiple Myeloma

Pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with treatment-naive multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-185): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial

Summary

Background

Lenalidomide and dexamethasone has been a standard of care in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The addition of a third drug to the combination is likely to improve treatment efficacy. KEYNOTE-185 assessed the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide and dexamethasone with and without pembrolizumab in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma. Here, we present the results of an unplanned interim analysis done to assess the benefit–risk of the combination at the request of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Methods

KEYNOTE-185 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 95 medical centres across 15 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Spain, UK, and USA). Transplantation-ineligible patients aged 18 years and older with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and who were treatment naive were enrolled, and randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone using an interactive voice or integrated web response system. Patients received oral lenalidomide 25 mg on days 1–21 and oral dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of repeated 28-day cycles, with or without intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was investigator-assessed because of early trial termination. Efficacy was analysed in all randomly assigned patients and safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02579863, and it is closed for accrual.

Findings

Between Jan 7, 2016, and June 9, 2017, 301 patients were randomly assigned to the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=151) or the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=150). On July 3, 2017, the FDA decided to halt the study because of the imbalance in the proportion of death between groups. At database cutoff (June 2, 2017), with a median follow-up of 6·6 months (IQR 3·4–9·6), 149 patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and 145 in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group had received their assigned study drug. Median progression-free survival was not reached in either group; progression-free survival estimates at 6-months were 82·0% (95% CI 73·2–88·1) versus 85·0% (76·8–90·5; hazard ratio 1·22; 95% CI 0·67–2·22; p=0·75). Serious adverse events were reported in 81 (54%) patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 57 (39%) patients in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group; the most common serious adverse events were pneumonia (nine [6%]) and pyrexia (seven [5%]) in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and pneumonia (eight [6%]) and sepsis (two [1%]) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group. Six (4%) treatment-related deaths occurred in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, myocarditis, large intestine perforation, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism) and two (1%) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and respiratory failure).

Interpretation

The results from this unplanned, FDA-requested, interim analysis showed that the benefit–risk profile of pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone is unfavourable for patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated multiple myeloma. Long-term safety and survival follow-up is ongoing.

Funding

Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Inc (Kenilworth, NJ, USA).
And this study:

Pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-183): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial

Pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-183): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial

Summary

Background

Pomalidomide and dexamethasone is a standard of care for patients with multiple myeloma in whom bortezomib and lenalidomide treatment has failed. KEYNOTE-183 assessed efficacy and safety of pomalidomide and dexamethasone with or without pembrolizumab in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Here, we present the findings of an unplanned, ad-hoc interim analysis at the request of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Methods

KEYNOTE-183 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 97 medical centres across 11 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, and USA). Patients aged at least 18 years with multiple myeloma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0 or 1, previously treated with at least two lines of therapy (excluding pomalidomide) and refractory to the last line were randomly assigned 1:1 to the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group or the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group via an interactive voice response or integrated web response system. Patients received oral pomalidomide 4 mg daily on days 1–21 and oral low-dose dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 in 28-day cycles, with or without intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. The dual primary endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival. Efficacy was assessed in all randomly assigned patients and safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02576977, and it is closed for accrual.

Findings

Between Jan 18, 2016, and June 7, 2017, 249 patients were randomly assigned to either the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=125) or the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=124). On July 3, 2017, the FDA established that risks associated with the triple combination outweighed benefits and halted the study. Median follow-up was 8·1 months (IQR 4·5–10·9). Median progression-free survival was 5·6 months (95% CI 3·7–7·5) in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 8·4 months (5·9–not reached) in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group; progression-free survival estimates at 6 months were 48% (95% CI 37–58) versus 60% (49–69) at 6 months (hazard ratio 1·53; 95% CI 1·05–2·22; p=0·98). Median overall survival was not reached (95% CI 12·9–not reached) versus 15·2 months (12·7–not reached; HR 1·61; 95% CI 0·91–2·85; p=0·95); overall survival estimates at 6 months were 82% (95% CI 74–88) versus 90% (82–95). Serious adverse events occurred in 75 (63%) of 120 patients in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 56 (46%) of 121 patients in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group. Four (3%) treatment-related deaths occurred in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (one each of unknown cause, neutropenic sepsis, myocarditis, and Stevens–Johnson syndrome); myocarditis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome were considered related to pembrolizumab. No treatment-related deaths were reported in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group.

Interpretation

The results from this unplanned, FDA-requested, interim analysis showed that the benefit–risk profile of pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone is unfavourable for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Funding

Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co (Kenilworth, NJ, USA).

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