16 april 2022: Bron: Kennislink en The Ethical Committee BMS of the University of Twente

Vorig jaar werd een studie gepubliceerd over hoe mensen omgaan met de diagnose kanker en Kennislink interviewde 26 kankerpatiënten n.a.v. die studie waaraan de universiteit van Twente en Groningen meewerkten. 

Hoe vullen mensen hun leven in na de diagnose kanker? Uit dat onderzoek uit 2021 weten we dat dit te maken heeft met hoe kritisch of compassievol we naar onszelf zijn.
Zelfkritiek betekent jezelf naar beneden halen en veroordelen: ‘Wat doe ik allemaal fout?’.
Zelfcompassie betekent jezelf ondersteunen in moeilijke tijden.

Vier thema's met betrekking tot zelfkritiek kwamen naar voren in de studie:

  • (1) hard of streng zijn voor jezelf,
  • (2) je schuldig of boos voelen,
  • (3) je nutteloos of een last voelen,
  • (4) je schamen en geen zwakte willen tonen.
En zes thema's met betrekking tot zelfcompassie bleken belangrijk:
  • (1) mild zijn voor jezelf,
  • (2) je grenzen bewaken,
  • (3) de ziekte en beperkingen accepteren,
  • (4) een positief perspectief behouden,
  • (5) verbinding maken met anderen,
  • (6) verantwoordelijkheid nemen voor uw gezondheid. 

De studie geeft nog veel meer details, klik op de titel voor het studierapport: 

Experiences of Self-Criticism and Self-Compassion in People Diagnosed With Cancer: A Multimethod Qualitative Study 

Kennislink interviewde 26 kankerpatiënten en schreef daar een artikel over. Een artikel dat ik ongewijzigd plaats:

Je hebt kanker en je bent streng voor jezelf 

Zesentwintig mensen met kanker vroegen wij uitgebreid hoe ze met zichzelf omgingen in de moeilijke tijd na hun diagnose. In dit artikel lees je de resultaten van deze interviewstudie.

Mensen met kanker krijgen te maken met allerlei lichamelijke, sociale en emotionele gevolgen van de diagnose en behandeling. Ze kunnen last hebben van lichamelijke klachten zoals vermoeidheid en misselijkheid bij chemotherapie. Soms moeten mensen stoppen of minderen met werken. Of hebben ze ineens een andere rol in hun relaties, bijvoorbeeld omdat hun partner veel meer voor ze moet zorgen. Veel mensen hebben last van angst en sombere gevoelens.

Hoe gaan mensen met al de gevolgen van de ziekte om? Uit eerder onderzoek weten we dat dit te maken heeft met hoe kritisch of compassievol we naar onszelf zijn. Zelfkritiek betekent jezelf naar beneden halen en veroordelen. De focus ligt op: ‘Wat doe ik allemaal fout?’. Zelfcompassie betekent jezelf ondersteunen in moeilijke tijden. De focus ligt op: ‘Wat speelt er en wat heb ik nodig?’. We weten dat zelfcompassie helpt bij het verbeteren van je mentale gezondheid. Maar over de eigen ervaringen van mensen met kanker hiermee is nog niet zoveel bekend.

Interviews over zelfkritiek en zelfcompassie

Om hier meer inzicht in te krijgen interviewden wij 26 mensen met verschillende vormen van kanker en met verschillende achtergronden over hun ervaringen met zelfkritiek en zelfcompassie. Via verpleegkundigen in het ziekenhuis en via sociale media riepen we mensen op om mee te doen. Vooraf aan het interview probeerden de deelnemers twee weken lang zelfcompassie-oefeningen uit, voor een paar minuten per dag. Bijvoorbeeld een oefening waarbij je stilstaat bij hoe je jezelf behandelt vergeleken met een vriend(in) die het moeilijk heeft. Zo dachten mensen alvast na over hun ervaringen met zelfkritiek en zelfcompassie.>>>>>>>>>lees verder  

Hier het abstract van de internationale studie waaraan ook universiteit van Twente en Groningen meewerkten:

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Front. Psychol., 13 October 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.737725

Experiences of Self-Criticism and Self-Compassion in People Diagnosed With Cancer: A Multimethod Qualitative Study

  • 1Department of Psychology, Health and Technology, Faculty of Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands
  • 2Department of Health Psychology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

Objective: Self-criticism is a self-condemning and self-compassion a supportive style of self-to-self relating. These concepts have increasingly been studied in people with cancer, but mainly with quantitative studies. This study is the first to explore how adult cancer patients experience self-criticism and self-compassion in the context of their illness.

Design: A multimethod qualitative study design was used, combining individual and group semi-structured interviews. Participants were 26 people with cancer who familiarized themselves with the topic by doing various self-compassion exercises for 2 weeks prior to the interview. Individual and group interviews were analyzed together using thematic analysis.

Results: Four themes regarding self-criticism were identified: (1) being harsh or strict with yourself, (2) feeling guilty or angry, (3) feeling useless or like a burden, (4) feeling ashamed and not wanting to show weakness. Six themes regarding self-compassion were identified: (1) being mild to yourself, (2) guarding your boundaries, (3) accepting the illness and limitations, (4) maintaining a positive perspective, (5) connecting to others, and (6) taking responsibility for your health.

Conclusion: Our findings offer insights into practical and daily life experiences of self-criticism and self-compassion of people with cancer, which can aid the further development of theory, scales and interventions.

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Appendix

Interview Guide

Part I: diagnosis, treatment and well-being of participant

• Introduction: aims, practical and background information of the study and the background and motivation of the interviewer.

• Illness-information: diagnosis, time since diagnosis, (experience of) received treatment, how the participant currently is doing.

Part II: experiences of self-criticism, self-compassion and the exercises

Brief evaluation of exercises (use, appreciation, perceived effect and intention for further use) in general and per exercise.

1. What is your impression of the concept self-compassion(/self-criticism)? Why does or doesn’t self-compassion(/self-criticism) fit with the situation of people with cancer?

[Exercise 1]

2. Can you think of examples when you were self-critical? Can you think of examples when you were self-compassionate?

[Exercise 2]

3. In what ways do you recognize the three emotion systems in your own life? Has your cancer diagnosis changed anything in the balance between the three systems?

[Exercise 3 and 6]

4. How would you describe self-compassion in your own words? (examples) Is this different after the diagnosis compared to before?

5. In a difficult moment, to what extent do you think you could remember to have compassion for yourself? To what extent are you able to have distance from a difficult situation, or are you overwhelmed by thoughts and feelings? How was this in the time after the diagnosis?

6. Did the diagnosis affect how connected or isolated you feel from other people? (examples)

Note: Additional questions were asked about giving and receiving compassion [Exercises 4 and 5], which were not part of the current study. There were no specific questions for [Exercise 7/8]; this reflection exercise already included questions such as “In what ways was I kind to myself today?” which were during the evaluation of the exercise.

Part III: demographic information and wrapping up

• Are there any topics that we have missed? Is there anything that you would like to add?

• Demographic questions (gender, age, marital status, employment status, education).

• Wrapping up: asking if the participant knows any other potential participants, asking whether participant wants to receive study results.






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