5 oktober 2018: Bron: Science Daily

Kunstmatige zoetstoffen, zoals aspartaam, sucralose, saccharine, neotaam, advantaam en acesulfaam-K die veel als vervangers van suiker worden gebruikt in voeding en dranken blijken een schadelijke invloed te hebben op de darmflora. En daarmee indirect op onze weerstand. Dat blijkt uit een studie door wetenschappers uit Israel en Italie en Singapore en gepubliceerd in Science Daily.

Een citaat uit een bericht op Foodlog hierover:

Ze gebruikten daarvoor een ‘panel’ van gemodificeerde bacteriën, die oplichten als ze met een gifstof in aanraking komen. Dat verschijnsel van bioluminiscentie komt van nature ook voor bij sommige bacteriën. De onderzoekers brachten die eigenschap in bij 3 soorten bacteriën. ............

De ene zoetstof laat andere bacteriën oplichten dan een andere. Bovendien kon vastgesteld worden dat het toxische effect dosesafhankelijk is.
Dit is aanvullend bewijs dat de consumptie van kunstmatige zoetstoffen de microbiële activiteit nadelig beïnvloedt, hetgeen een groot aantal gezondheidsproblemen kan veroorzaken,” aldus een van de onderzoekers in ScienceDaily.

Het persbericht over de studie : Artificial sweeteners have toxic effects on gut microbes luidt:

Conclusie: The collaborative study indicated relative toxicity of six artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose, saccharine, neotame, advantame, and acesulfame potassium-k) and 10 sport supplements containing these artificial sweeteners. The bacteria found in the digestive system became toxic when exposed to concentrations of only one mg./ml. of the artificial sweeteners.

Sweetener.

Credit: © Monika Wisniewska / Fotolia

FDA-approved artificial sweeteners and sport supplements were found to be toxic to digestive gut microbes, according to a new paper published in Molecules by researchers at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) in Israel and Nanyang Technological University in Singapore.

The collaborative study indicated relative toxicity of six artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose, saccharine, neotame, advantame, and acesulfame potassium-k) and 10 sport supplements containing these artificial sweeteners. The bacteria found in the digestive system became toxic when exposed to concentrations of only one mg./ml. of the artificial sweeteners>>>>>>>reed the whole article

De studiepublicatie zelf: 

Measuring Artificial Sweeteners Toxicity Using a Bioluminescent Bacterial Panel

is volledig gratis in te zien, zie onderstaande abstract:

Journal Reference:

  1. Dorin Harpaz, Loo Yeo, Francesca Cecchini, Trish Koon, Ariel Kushmaro, Alfred Tok, Robert Marks, Evgeni Eltzov. Measuring Artificial Sweeteners Toxicity Using a Bioluminescent Bacterial Panel. Molecules, 2018; 23 (10): 2454 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102454

Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2454; doi:10.3390/molecules23102454

Article

Measuring Artificial Sweeteners Toxicity Using a Bioluminescent Bacterial Panel

1
School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technology University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore
2
Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren, Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
3
Institute for Sports Research (ISR), Nanyang Technology University and Loughborough University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore
4
TURVAL Laboratories, Ltd. (Laboratori Turval Italia Srl), via J. Linussio 51, 33100 Udine, Italy
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899, Singapore
6
School of Science and Technology, Singapore University of Social Sciences, 463 Clementi Road, Singapore 599494, Singapore
7
The National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
8
The Ilse Katz Centre for Meso and Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
9
Agriculture Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Centre, Rishon LeTsiyon 15159, Israel

*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018

Abstract

:
Artificial sweeteners have become increasingly controversial due to their questionable influence on consumers’ health. They are introduced in most foods and many consume this added ingredient without their knowledge. Currently, there is still no consensus regarding the health consequences of artificial sweeteners intake as they have not been fully investigated. Consumption of artificial sweeteners has been linked with adverse effects such as cancer, weight gain, metabolic disorders, type-2 diabetes and alteration of gut microbiota activity. Moreover, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging environmental pollutants, and can be found in receiving waters, i.e., surface waters, groundwater aquifers and drinking waters. In this study, the relative toxicity of six FDA-approved artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose, saccharine, neotame, advantame and acesulfame potassium-k (ace-k)) and that of ten sport supplements containing these artificial sweeteners, were tested using genetically modified bioluminescent bacteria from E. coli. The bioluminescent bacteria, which luminesce when they detect toxicants, act as a sensing model representative of the complex microbial system. Both induced luminescent signals and bacterial growth were measured. Toxic effects were found when the bacteria were exposed to certain concentrations of the artificial sweeteners. In the bioluminescence activity assay, two toxicity response patterns were observed, namely, the induction and inhibition of the bioluminescent signal. An inhibition response pattern may be observed in the response of sucralose in all the tested strains: TV1061 (MLIC = 1 mg/mL), DPD2544 (MLIC = 50 mg/mL) and DPD2794 (MLIC = 100 mg/mL). It is also observed in neotame in the DPD2544 (MLIC = 2 mg/mL) strain. On the other hand, the induction response pattern may be observed in its response in saccharin in TV1061 (MLIndC = 5 mg/mL) and DPD2794 (MLIndC = 5 mg/mL) strains, aspartame in DPD2794 (MLIndC = 4 mg/mL) strain, and ace-k in DPD2794 (MLIndC = 10 mg/mL) strain. The results of this study may help in understanding the relative toxicity of artificial sweeteners on E. coli, a sensing model representative of the gut bacteria. Furthermore, the tested bioluminescent bacterial panel can potentially be used for detecting artificial sweeteners in the environment, using a specific mode-of-action pattern.

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Figure 1. Artificial sweeteners toxicity. The toxicity index of different artificial sweeteners on the three tested bioluminescent bacteria strains: (A) TV1061; (B) DPD2544; (C) DPD2794. A strong induction response pattern may be observed in the response of the TV1061 strain to saccharin and DPD2794 strain to aspartame and saccharin. In addition, a strong inhibition response pattern may be observed in the response of the TV1061 strain to sucralose.
Molecules 23 02454 g001
Figure 2. Sport supplements’ toxicity. Toxicity index of different sport supplements on the three tested bioluminescent bacteria strains: (A) TV1061; (B) DPD2544; (C) DPD2794.
Molecules 23 02454 g002aMolecules 23 02454 g002b
Figure 3. Experimental process. (A) each bacteria strain tested was striked on an agar plate containing Kanamycin, and incubated overnight at 37 °C; (B) a starter was grown from a single colony from the striked plate, and incubated overnight at 37 °C in a shaking incubator; (C) the starter was refreshed by adding 200 μL of the overnight culture into 10 mL of fresh LB, and then grown for 3–4 h at 30 °C in a non-shaking incubator; (D) the bacteria strains were then exposed to the different samples of different concentrations in a high-throughput measurement using a 96-well plate; (E,F) the toxicity (Relative Light Unit (RLU)) and growth (O.D. 600 nm) signals were measured continuously during the 16 h incubation at 26 °C, in the Luminometer and TECAN reader, respectively.
Molecules 23 02454 g003
Table 1. Artificial sweeteners toxicity and viability effect (mg/mL).
StrainMLICMLIndCMGICMGIndC
Aspartame TV1061 N.E. N.E. N.E. N.E.
DPD2544 N.E. N.E. N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. 4 N.E. N.E.
Sucralose TV1061 1 N.E. 50 N.E.
DPD2544 50 N.E. 50 N.E.
DPD2794 100 N.E. 50 N.E.
Saccharin TV1061 N.E. 5 5 N.E.
DPD2544 N.E. N.E. N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. 5 N.E. N.E.
Advantame TV1061 N.E. N.E. N.E. 2
DPD2544 N.E. N.E. N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. N.E. N.E. N.E.
Neotame TV1061 N.E. 2 N.E. N.E.
DPD2544 2 N.E. N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. N.E. N.E. N.E.
Ace-K TV1061 N.E. N.E. N.E. N.E.
DPD2544 N.E. N.E. N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. 10 N.E. N.E.
MLIC—Minimum Luminescent Inhibition Concentration; MLIndC—Minimum Luminescent Induction Concentration; MGIC—Minimum Growth Inhibition Concentration; MGIndC—Minimum Growth Induction Concentration; N.E.—No Effect.
Table 2. Sport supplements’ toxicity and viability effect (µg/mL).
StrainMLICMLIndCMGICMGIndC
SS1 TV1061 N.E. 2000 N.E. N.E.
DPD2544 2 × 10−3 2 × 10−6 N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. N.E. 2000 N.E.
SS2 TV1061 N.E. N.E. N.E. N.E.
DPD2544 1 × 10−3 1 × 10−6 N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. N.E. 1000 N.E.
SS3 TV1061 N.E. N.E. N.E. 4000
DPD2544 4 × 10−3 4 × 10−6 N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 4000 N.E. N.E. 4000
SS4 TV1061 N.E. N.E. N.E. 5000
DPD2544 5 × 10−3 5 × 10−6 N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. N.E. N.E. 5000
SS5 TV1061 N.E. 5000 N.E. N.E.
DPD2544 5 × 10−3 5 × 10−6 N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. 5000 5000 N.E.
SS6 TV1061 N.E. N.E. N.E. 3000
DPD2544 3 × 10−3 3 × 10−6 N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. N.E. N.E. N.E.
SS7 TV1061 5000 500 5000 N.E.
DPD2544 5 × 10−3 5 × 10−6 N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 5000 N.E. 5000 N.E.
SS8 TV1061 N.E. N.E. N.E. 2000
DPD2544 2 × 10−3 2 × 10−6 N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. N.E. N.E. 2000
SS9 TV1061 N.E. 3000 N.E. N.E.
DPD2544 3 × 10−3 3 × 10−6 N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. N.E. N.E. N.E.
SS10 TV1061 N.E. N.E. N.E. 3000
DPD2544 3 × 10−3 3 × 10−6 N.E. N.E.
DPD2794 N.E. N.E. N.E. 3000
MLIC—Minimum Luminescent Inhibition Concentration; MLIndC—Minimum Luminescent Induction Concentration; MGIC—Minimum Growth Inhibition Concentration; MGIndC—Minimum Growth Induction Concentration; N.E.—No Effect.
Table 3. Sport supplement profile.
Artificial Sweeteners ContentRecommended Amount for Consumption
(1 oz = 30 mL)
Ingredients
SS1 Sucralose 2 tablets (5 g), recommended to drink a lot of water Creatine Hydrochloride, Cellulose, Dicalcium phosphate, Enteric Coating (Cellulose, Sodium Alginate, Medium Chain Triglycerides, Oleic and Stearic Acid), Natural Mint Flavor, Sucralose, Titanium Dioxide
SS2 Acesulfame Potassium-K and Sucralose 2 (7 g) to 8 (28 g) scoops in 8–10 oz per serving (2 scoops) Black Tea Extract, Green Tea Extract, Green Coffee Extract, Micronized Taurine, Micronized l-Glutamine, Micronized l-Arginine, Micronized l-Leucine, Beta-Alanine (as CarnoSyn®), Micronized Citrulline, Micronized l-Isoleucine, Micronized l-Valine, Micronized l-Tyrosine, Micronized l-Histidine, Micronized l-Lysine, Micronized l-Phenylalanine, Micronized l-Threonine, Micronized l-Methionine
Other Ingredients: Inulin, Acesulfame Potassium, Citric Acid, FD&C Red #40, Malic Acid, Natural and Artificial Flavors, Sucralose, Silion Dioxide
SS3 Acesulfame Potassium-K and Sucralose 1 (31 g) to 2 (62 g) scoops in 6–8 oz per scoop Calcium, Cholesterol, Dietary Fibers, Potassium, Protein, Saturated Fat, Sodium, Sugars, Trans Fat
Other Ingredients: Acesulfame Potassium, Cocoa (Processed with Alkali), Enzyme Blend (Aminogen®, Lactase), Lecithin, Natural and Artificial Flavors, Salt, Sucralose, Whey Protein Blend (Whey Protein Isolate, Whey Protein Concentrate, Whey Protein Hydrolysate), Xanthan Gum
SS4 Sucralose 1 (31 g) to 2 (62 g) scoops in 4–10 oz per scoop Calcium, Cholesterol, proteins, Sodium, Saturated Fat, sugars, Trans Fat
Other Ingredients: Citric Acid, FD&C Red #40 Lake, Lactase, Sucralose, Natural and Artificial Flavors, Soy Lecithin, Whey Protein Isolate, Whey Protein Concentrate, Whey Peptides
SS5 Sucralose 2 (9 g) to 6 (27 g) scoops in 10–12 oz per serving (2 scoops) Caffeine, Green Tea Extract, Green Coffee Extract, Micronized Taurine, Micronized l-Glutamine, Micronized l-Arginine, Micronized l-Leucine, Beta-Alanine (as CarnoSyn®), Micronized Citrulline, Micronized l-Isoleucine, Micronized l-Valine, Micronized l-Tyrosine, Micronized l-Histidine, Micronized l-Lysine HCI, Micronized l-Phenylalanine, Micronized l-Threonine, Micronized l-Methionine
Other Ingredients: Calcium Citrate, Calcium Silicate, Citric Acid, Gum Blend (Cellulose Gum, Xanthan Gum, Carrageenan), FD&C Blue #2, FD&C Red #40, Inulin, Lecithin, Malic Acid, Natural and Artificial Flavors, Silicon Dioxide, Sucralose, Tartaric Acid
SS6 Acesulfame Potassium-K 1 (29.4 g) rounded scoop in 4–10 oz Calcium, Protein, Saturated Fat, Sodium, Sugars, Trans Fat
Other Ingredients: Acesulfame Potassium, Aminogen®, Lactase, Lecithin, Natural and Artificial Flavor, Whey Protein Isolate, Whey Protein Concentrate, Whey Peptides
SS7 Acesulfame Potassium-K and Sucralose 1 (49 g) to 2 (98 g) scoops in 6 oz per scoop Alpha lipoic acid, Calcium, Citric Acid, Creatine Monohydrate, Creatine HCI, Dicalcium Phosphate, Dextrose, l-alanine, l-Isoleucine, l-Leucine, l-Valine, Magnesium Oxide, Potassium, Sodium, Sugar, Taurine, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vitamin B12
Other Ingredients: Acesulfame-Potassium, Dextrose, Ethyl-Cellulose, Glucose Polymers, Modcarb™ [Oat Bran, Amaranth, Quinoa, Buckwheat, Millet, Chia], Natural Flavors, Calcium Silicate, Salt, Sucralose, FD&C Yellow No. 6, Soy Lecithin, FD&C Yellow No. 5, Waxy Maize (Corn Starch), (Cluster Dextrin)
SS8 Acesulfame Potassium-K and Sucralose 1 (34 g) scoop in 6 oz water or skim milk Calcium, Cholesterol, Dietary Fiber, Iron, Protein, Saturated Fat, Sodium, Sugar
Other Ingredients: Acesulfame-Potassium, Alkalized Cocoa Powder, Calcium Carbonate, Gum Blend (Cellulose Gum, Xanthan Gum, Carrageenan), Natural and Artificial Flavors, Salt, Soy Lecithin, Sucralose, Sunflower-based Creamer (Sunflower oil, Corn syrup solids, Sodium Caseinate, Mono-Diglycerides, Dipotassium Phosphate, Tocopherols), Tricalcium Phosphate, Whey Protein Isolate, Whey Peptides, whey Protein Concentrate
SS9 Acesulfame Potassium-K and Sucralose 1 (32.4 g) to 2 (64.8 g) scoops in 8–12 oz Calcium, Cholesterol, Dietary Fiber, Iron, Potassium, Protein, Saturated Fat, Sodium, Sugar, Trans Fat, Vitamin A, Vitamin C
Other Ingredients: Acesulfame-Potassium, Amino Matrix (l-Glycine, l-Taurine, BCAAs (Leucine, Iso-Leucine, Valine), l-Glutamine), Flax Seed Oil, Glucose Polymers, Lactase, Natural and Artificial Flavors, Sucralose, Sea Salt, Suspension Matrix (Xanthan Gum, Cellulose Gum, Guar Gum), Whey Protein Concentrate, Whey Protein Isolate, Whey Protein Hydrolysate
SS10 Acesulfame Potassium-K and Sucralose 1 (34.9 g) to 2 (69.8 g) scoops in 8–12 oz Calcium, Cholesterol, Dietary Fiber, Iron, Multi-level Amino Acid Growth Matrix, Potassium, Protein, Saturated Fat, Sodium, Trans Fat
Other Ingredients: Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic Acid, BCAAs (l-Leucine, l-isoleucine, l-Glutamine, l-valine), Cystine, Digestive Enzyme Blend, Egg Albumen, Glycine, Histidine, Lactase, Lysine, Methionine, Micellar Casein, Partially-hydrolyzed Whey Concentrate, Phenylalanine, Proline, Protease, Serine, Tyrosine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Whey Protein Isolate, Whey Protein Concentrate
Table 4. Bioluminescent bacterial strains.
StrainE. coli Host StrainPromoterPlasmidStress SensitivityReference
TV1061 RFM443 grp E pGrpELux5 Heat Shock (Cytotoxic) [86]
DPD2544 W3110 fab A pFabALux6 Fatty Acid Availability (Cytotoxic) [53]
DPD2794 RFM443 rec A pRecALux3 SOS—DNA Damage (Genotoxicity) [87]
  • Sample Availability: Not available.

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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