Mocht u de informatie op onze website kanker-actueel.nl waarderen dan wilt u ons misschien ondersteunen met een donatie

Ons rekeningnummer is: RABO 37.29.31.138 t.n.v. Stichting Gezondheid Actueel in Terneuzen. Onze IBANcode is NL79 RABO 0372 9311 38

Als donateur kunt u ook korting krijgen bij verschillende bedrijven. En we hebben een ANBI status

Zie ook in gerelateerde artikelen voor meer artikelen over het coronavirus - Covid-19

13 juni 2020 Lees ook dit artikel: 

https://kanker-actueel.nl/het-dragen-van-mondkapjes-binnen-thuis-kan-voorkomen-dat-andere-familieleden-besmet-worden-met-het-coronavirus-covid-19-blijkt-uit-chinese-studie.html

13 juni 2020: Bron: PNAS 11 juni 2020

De beste manier om de overdracht van het coronavirus - Covid-19 te verminderen, is door een gezichtsmasker te dragen. Dit blijkt uit een meta analyse van verschillende studies en verspreidingsgegevens over het coronavirus - Covid-19.

Dit is de kernconclusie van de onderzoekers: 

"Het dragen van gezichtsmaskers in het openbaar blijkt de meest effectieve manier om overdracht tussen mensen te voorkomen, en deze goedkope practische manier, in combinatie met gelijktijdig sociale afstand, in quarantaine en contacttracering, vormt de meest waarschijnlijke mogelijkheid om de pandemie van COVID-19 te stoppen, voorafgaand aan de ontwikkeling van een vaccin ", schrijven ze.

("Wearing of face masks in public corresponds to the most effective means to prevent interhuman transmission, and this inexpensive practice, in conjunction with simultaneous social distancing, quarantine, and contact tracing, represents the most likely fighting opportunity to stop the COVID-19 pandemic, prior to the development of a vaccine")

"Gezichtsbedekking voorkomt zowel overdracht via de lucht door verstuiving en inademing van virusdragende aërosolen te blokkeren en contactoverdracht door virale verspreiding van druppeltjes te blokkeren", schrijven ze. "Aan de andere kant minimaliseren sociale afstand, quarantaine en isolatie, in combinatie met handdesinfectie, contact (directe en indirecte) transmissie tot een minimum, maar beschermen ze niet tegen transmissie via de lucht.

Uit deze studie blijkt dat het dragen van gezichtsmaskers, in tegenstelling tot China, in het grootste deel van de westerse wereld tijdens de vroege uitbraak van de pandemie niet populair was. Maar de onderzoekers zeggen dat deze studie het bewijs levert dat maskers het beste werken om de verspreiding te vertragen. En de beste manier is om de pandemie te controleren tot er een effectief vaccin voorhanden is.

De onderzoekers schrijven dat zowel de Wereldgezondheidsorganisatie WHO als de Amerikaanse centra voor ziektebestrijding en -preventie de nadruk legden op het voorkomen van contactoverdracht, maar dat beide organisaties het belang van besmetting via de lucht grotendeels negeerden.'De huidige mitigerende maatregelen, zoals sociale afstand, quarantaine en isolatie die in de Verenigde Staten zijn geïmplementeerd, zijn op zichzelf onvoldoende om het publiek te beschermen', zo schrijven de onderzoekers.

Ook Nederland, in navolging van een WHO advies bagetelliseerde het dragen van gezichtsmaskers, maar blijkt nu dus een grote inschattingsfout geweest te zijn. 

Conclusie uit deze studie:

The inadequate knowledge on virus transmission has inevitably hindered development of effective mitigation policies and resulted in unstoppable propagation of the COVID-19 pandemic (Figs. 13). In this work, we show that airborne transmission, particularly via nascent aerosols from human atomization, is highly virulent and represents the dominant route for the transmission of this disease. However, the importance of airborne transmission has not been considered in establishment of mitigation measures by government authorities (120). Specifically, while the WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have emphasized the prevention of contact transmission, both WHO and CDC have largely ignored the importance of the airborne transmission route (120). The current mitigation measures, such as social distancing, quarantine, and isolation implemented in the United States, are insufficient by themselves in protecting the public. Our analysis reveals that the difference with and without mandated face covering represents the determinant in shaping the trends of the pandemic worldwide. We conclude that wearing of face masks in public corresponds to the most effective means to prevent interhuman transmission, and this inexpensive practice, in conjunction with extensive testing, quarantine, and contact tracking, poses the most probable fighting opportunity to stop the COVID-19 pandemic, prior to the development of a vaccine. It is also important to emphasize that sound science should be effectively communicated to policy makers and should constitute the prime foundation in decision-making amid this pandemic. Implementing policies without a scientific basis could lead to catastrophic consequences, particularly in light of attempts to reopen the economy in many countries. Clearly, integration between science and policy is crucial to formulation of effective emergency responses by policy makers and preparedness by the public for the current and future public health pandemics.

De studie: Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of COVID-19

is gepubliceerd in PNAS en is heel gedetailleerd beschreven met veel referenties naar onderligggende studies voor deze meta analyse. 

Hier de introductie van de studie en abstract:

Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of COVID-19

Renyi Zhang, Yixin Li, Annie L. Zhang, Yuan Wang, and Mario J. Molina
  1. Contributed by Mario J. Molina, May 16, 2020 (sent for review May 14, 2020; reviewed by Manish Shrivastava and Tong Zhu)

Significance

We have elucidated the transmission pathways of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by analyzing the trend and mitigation measures in the three epicenters. Our results show that the airborne transmission route is highly virulent and dominant for the spread of COVID-19. The mitigation measures are discernable from the trends of the pandemic. Our analysis reveals that the difference with and without mandated face covering represents the determinant in shaping the trends of the pandemic. This protective measure significantly reduces the number of infections. Other mitigation measures, such as social distancing implemented in the United States, are insufficient by themselves in protecting the public. Our work also highlights the necessity that sound science is essential in decision-making for the current and future public health pandemics.

Abstract

Various mitigation measures have been implemented to fight the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including widely adopted social distancing and mandated face covering. However, assessing the effectiveness of those intervention practices hinges on the understanding of virus transmission, which remains uncertain. Here we show that airborne transmission is highly virulent and represents the dominant route to spread the disease. By analyzing the trend and mitigation measures in Wuhan, China, Italy, and New York City, from January 23 to May 9, 2020, we illustrate that the impacts of mitigation measures are discernable from the trends of the pandemic. Our analysis reveals that the difference with and without mandated face covering represents the determinant in shaping the pandemic trends in the three epicenters. This protective measure alone significantly reduced the number of infections, that is, by over 78,000 in Italy from April 6 to May 9 and over 66,000 in New York City from April 17 to May 9. Other mitigation measures, such as social distancing implemented in the United States, are insufficient by themselves in protecting the public. We conclude that wearing of face masks in public corresponds to the most effective means to prevent interhuman transmission, and this inexpensive practice, in conjunction with simultaneous social distancing, quarantine, and contact tracing, represents the most likely fighting opportunity to stop the COVID-19 pandemic. Our work also highlights the fact that sound science is essential in decision-making for the current and future public health pandemics.

The novel coronavirus outbreak, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, has infected over 4 million people and caused nearly 300,000 fatalities over 188 countries (1). Intensive effort is ongoing worldwide to establish effective treatments and develop a vaccine for the disease. The novel coronavirus, named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), belongs to the family of the pathogen that is responsible for respiratory illness linked to the 2002–2003 outbreak (SARS-CoV-1) (2). The enveloped virus contains a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry of ∼120 nm. There exist several plausible pathways for viruses to be transmitted from person to person. Human atomization of virus-bearing particles occurs from coughing/sneezing and even from normal breathing/talking by an infected person (36). These mechanisms of viral shedding produce large droplets and small aerosols (3), which are conventionally delineated at a size of 5 μm to characterize their distinct dispersion efficiencies and residence times in air as well as the deposition patterns along the human respiratory tract (37). Virus transmission occurs via direct (deposited on persons) or indirect (deposited on objects) contact and airborne (droplets and aerosols) routes (3). Large droplets readily settle out of air to cause person/object contamination; in contrast, aerosols are efficiently dispersed in air. While transmission via direct or indirect contact occurs in a short range, airborne transmission via aerosols can occur over an extended distance and time. Inhaled virus-bearing aerosols deposit directly along the human respiratory tract.

Previous experimental and observational studies on interhuman transmission have indicated a significant role of aerosols in the transmission of many respiratory viruses, including influenza virus, SARS-CoV-1, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (811). For example, airborne coronavirus MERS-CoV exhibited strong capability of surviving, with about 64% of microorganisms remaining infectious 60 min after atomization at 25 °C and 79% relative humidity (RH) (9). On the other hand, rapid virus decay occurred, with only 5% survival over a 60-min procedure at 38 °C and 24% RH, indicative of inactivation. Recent experimental studies have examined the stability of SARS-CoV-2, showing that the virus remains infectious in aerosols for hours (12) and on surfaces up to days (1213).

Several parameters likely influence the microorganism survival and delivery in air, including temperature, humidity, microbial resistance to external physical and biological stresses, and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (7). Transmission and infectivity of airborne viruses are also dependent on the size and number concentration of inhaled aerosols, which regulate the amount (dose) and pattern for respiratory deposition. With typical nasal breathing (i.e., at a velocity of ∼1 m⋅s−1) (4), inhalation of airborne viruses leads to direct and continuous deposition into the human respiratory tract. In particular, fine aerosols (i.e., particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm, or PM2.5) penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract and even reach other vital organs (1415). In addition, viral shedding is dependent on the stages of infection and varies between symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers. A recent finding (16) showed that the highest viral load in the upper respiratory tract occurs at the symptom onset, suggesting the peak of infectiousness on or before the symptom onset and substantial asymptomatic transmission for SARS-CoV-2.

The COVID-19 outbreak is significantly more pronounced than that of the 2002/2003 SARS, and the disease continues to spread at an alarming rate worldwide, despite extreme measures taken by many countries to constrain the pandemic (1). The enormous scope and magnitude of the COVID-19 outbreak reflect not only a highly contagious nature but also exceedingly efficient transmission for SARS-CoV-2. Currently, the mechanisms to spread the virus remain uncertain (17), particularly considering the relative contribution of the contact vs. airborne transmission routes to this global pandemic. Available epidemiological (1) and experimental (1218) evidence, however, implicates airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via aerosols as a potential route for the spreading of the disease.

Referenties:

References

View Abstract


Plaats een reactie ...

Reageer op "Gezichtsmasker - mondkapje dragen is de beste manier om de overdracht van het coronavirus - Covid-19 te verminderen. Blijkt uit grote meta analyse."


Gerelateerde artikelen
 

Gerelateerde artikelen

Bloedplasma injecties met >> Passieve immuniteit kan 60 >> Hydroxychloroquine vermindert >> Hydroxychloroquine plus azitromycine >> Nieuwe mutatie van Covid-19 >> Veel meer mensen lijken beschermd >> Tocilizumab, een interleukine-6-receptorantagonist >> Genen en T-cellen spelen ook >> Obesitas komt vaker voor bij >> Dexamethason kan risico op >>