9 mei 2021: Bron: JAMA 22 april 2021

Uit een studie bij 3448 mensen in een min of meer besloten "bubbel" van professionele basketballers en personeel blijkt dat mensen die eerder besmet zijn geweest met het coronavirus - Covid-19  en daarvan zijn genezen geen gevaar zijn om anderen te besmetten. Zelfs niet in een omgeving waar geen maatregelen werden getroffen van afstand houden, mondmaskers dragen enz. 

De National Basketball Association (NBA) volgde tijdens een gesloten campusprogramma in 2020 met dagelijkse SARS-CoV-2-testen voor totaal 3448 personen. Van de 3648 deelnemers aan het programma hadden 36 mensen herhaaldelijk positieve PCR-tests voor SARS-CoV-2. Hiervan ondervonden 33 mensen een infectie voordat ze de campus betraden en 3 bleken besmet te zijn tijdens de vereiste quarantaineperiode na het betreden van de campus.

Ondanks deze positieve tests mochten de deelnemers deelnemen aan maskervrije activiteiten (bijv. Oefenen, spelletjes) als de symptomen waren verdwenen en er 10 dagen waren verstreken sinds de eerste infectie. De tests bleven gemiddeld 30 dagen positief (spreiding 14-68 dagen) en de drempelwaarden voor de cyclus waren doorgaans erg hoog (gemiddeld 34,1), wat wijst op enkele kopieën van viraal nucleïnezuur. Gedurende 1480 mandagen van directe blootstelling vonden geen tweede besmettingen plaats.

In een retrospectieve cohortstudie beoordeelden onderzoekers het risico op secundaire transmissie onder die spelers en personeel met herhaaldelijk positieve tests na het einde van de isolatie. Klik op de titel voor het studieversalg van deze studie die in JAMA swerd gepubliceerd:

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Editorial comment
Key Points

Question  Do individuals who have clinically recovered from COVID-19 but continue to test positive still transmit SARS-CoV-2?

Findings  In this cohort study of 3648 participants, data were collected during the resumption of the 2020 National Basketball Association season in a closed environment. Individuals who recovered clinically from COVID-19 but continued to test positive did not transmit SARS-CoV-2 to others, despite close proximity with susceptible individuals.

Meaning  US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention guidelines to allow discontinuation of isolation precautions for asymptomatic individuals after 10 days from symptom onset or first reverse-transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive test result, without requiring a negative RT-PCR test result, was sufficient to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in this 2020 cohort.

Abstract

Importance  Clinical data are lacking regarding the risk of viral transmission from individuals who have positive reverse-transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 test results after recovery from COVID-19.

Objective  To describe case characteristics, including viral dynamics and transmission of infection, for individuals who have clinically recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection but continued to have positive test results following discontinuation of isolation precautions.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This retrospective cohort study used data collected from June 11, 2020, to October 19, 2020, as part of the National Basketball Association (NBA) closed campus occupational health program in Orlando, Florida, which required daily RT-PCR testing and ad hoc serological testing for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Nearly 4000 NBA players, staff, and vendors participated in the NBA’s regular and postseason occupational health program in Orlando. Persistent positive cases were those who recovered from a documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, satisfied US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for discontinuation of isolation precautions, and had at least 1 postinfection positive RT-PCR test(s) result.

Exposures  Person-days of participation in indoor, unmasked activities that involved direct exposure between persistent positive cases and noninfected individuals.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 following interaction with persistent positive individuals, as measured by the number of new COVID-19 cases in the Orlando campus program.

Results  Among 3648 individuals who participated, 36 (1%) were persistent positive cases, most of whom were younger than 30 years (24 [67%]) and male (34 [94%]). Antibodies were detected in 33 individuals (91.7%); all remained asymptomatic following the index persistent positive RT-PCR result. Cycle threshold values for persistent positive RT-PCR test results were typically above the Roche cobas SARS-CoV-2 limit of detection. Cases were monitored for up to 100 days (mean , 51 [23.9] days), during which there were at least 1480 person-days of direct exposure activities, with no transmission events or secondary infections of SARS-CoV-2 detected (0 new cases).

Conclusions and Relevance  In this retrospective cohort study of the 2020 NBA closed campus occupational health program, recovered individuals who continued to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 following discontinuation of isolation were not infectious to others. These findings support time-based US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for ending isolation.

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